The Bluebook
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adjacent spacing of, R6.1
administrative reporters, R6.1(b), R10.7.2, R14.3.1, T.1
administrative reports, R14.3.1
agencies, R6.1, R14
American Bar Association, R12.9.5
American reporters,
R10.3.2, T.1
“and,” in case names, R10.2.1(c)
arbitral reporters, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.5
authors, R15.1
bound services, T.15
Brazilian materials, T.2
business firms, R10.2.1(h), R15.1(d)
case history, R10.7.1(a), T.8
case names, R10.2
case names, in citations, R10.2.2
case names, international, R21.5
citations, repeating, R4
closing up of, R6.1
codes, statutory, R12.3
commissions, T.1
commonly abbreviated names, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(d), R10.2.2, T.6
congressional reports and documents, R13, T.9
corporate authors, R15.1
countries, (see foreign countries)
court documents,
B10, BT.2
court of decision, R10.4, T.7
dollar symbol, R6.2(d)
editions of books, R15.4, T.14
English-language periodicals, R6.1T.13
English Law Report series, T.2
English monarchs, T.2
European Court and Commission of Human Rights materials, T.3
European Union materials, R21.5.2, R21.9 T.3
explanatory phrases, R2.1(e), R4.1, R10.7.1, T.8
foreign countries, T.10.3
foreign courts,
R20.1-R20.3 (see also name of jurisdiction)
foreign materials, R20,
foreign periodicals, R20.6
generally, R6.1
“hereinafter,” use of, R4.2, R21.4, R21.4.1(b), R21.4.5, R21.8.2(c), R21.8.4(d), T.2
history of cases, R10.7
initials, commonly recognized, B5.1.1(v), B5.3, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(k)
institutional authors, R15.1(c)
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights materials, R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
intergovernmental organizations, R21.8, T.3
international and world organization materials, R21, T.3
judges, titles, R9, T.11
law journals and reviews, T.13
League of Nations materials, R21.8, T.3, T.4
looseleaf services, R19.1, T.15
model codes, R12.8.4
multiple citations of same work, R4
multiple editions and printings, R15.4
municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
names, commonly abbreviated, B5.1.1(v), B5.3, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(k)
new series, R3.1, T.13, T.14
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, R16.5
no date, T.14
officials, titles, R9, T.11
ordinances, R12.8.2
paragraph symbols, R3.3, R3.3(c), R6.2(c), T.16
parties to treaties, R21.4.2
percent symbols, R6.2(d)
periodicals, R6.1(a), R16.6.8, R20.2.3, R20.6, T.13
periodicals, English-language, T.13
periodicals, foreign-language, R20.2.3R20.6
pluralization of, T.6
prepositions in periodical names, T.13
prior case history, R10.7
publishers of services, T.15
publishing terms, T.14
punctuation of, R6.1
repeating citations, R4.1-R4.2
reporters, foreign, R20.3, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
reporters, United States, 
restatements, R3.5, R12.8.5
section symbols, R3.3, R6.2(c)
services, T.15
session laws, R12.4 (see also name of jurisdiction)
spacing of,
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12 (see also name of jurisdiction)
subdivisions (e.g., section, article, chapter),
R3, R6.1(b), R7, R11, R21.4.3, T.16
subsequent case history, R10.7
taxation materials, B12.1.4, R14.5
titles of books and pamphlets, R15.3
titles of individuals, R9, T11
treaty series, T.4
unions, R10.2.1(i)
United Nations materials, R21.7, T.3
“United States,” R6.1(b), R10.2.1(f), R10.2.2, R15.1(d)
use of abbreviations not listed in this book, R6.1

“Abrogated by,” in case history, R10.7.1(c)(ii)
Abstracts, in law reviews, R16.6.2
“Accord,” as signal, R1.2(a)
Acquiescence, in tax cases, R14.5.3, T.8
“Act,” capitalization of, R8(b)(ii)
Action on decision, R14.5.3
Accounting standards, R12.8.5
Acts (see Codes, Session laws, Statutes)
Addresses (speeches), R2.2(a)(ii), R14.7(b), R15.5.2(b), R17.1.5
Administrative agencies

abbreviation of, R14.1
adjudications, R14.3
arbitrations, R14.3
reporters, T.1
reports, R14.3

Administrative cases

citation of, R14.3, T.1
exact date, when required, R14.3.2(b)
number of case, when required, R14.3.2(b)
omission of procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
parallel citation, R14.3.2(b)
recent, R14.3.2
services, when cited, R.14.3.2(b)
“sub nom.,” use on appeal, R10.7.2(a)

Administrative law judges,R8(ii)R9, T.11
Administrative materials

adjudications, R10.1, R14.1, R14.3.1
agency publications, R14.3, R15.1(c)
basic citation forms, R14.1
cases, R10.7.2, R14.1, R14.3, R14.5.3
citation order, R1.4(i)
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.1, R14.2(a), R14.10(c)
compilations of regulations, R14.2
court administrative orders, R14.1, R14.8
executive orders, B6.1.4, R1.4(f), R14.1, R14.5.2(e), R14.7
Federal Register, B11, R12.7, R14.1, R14.2, R14.6(b), R14.7, R14.10(c)
federal rules and regulations, R14.1-R14.2
foreign (see name of country)
R14, T.1
Internal Revenue Service, R12.1.4, T.1
Internet sources, R14.4
names of rules and regulations, R14.2
notices, R14.2(b)
official releases, R14.3.2(a)
opinions, formal advisory, R14.1, R14.4
order within signal, R1.4
popular names of rules and regulations, R14.2
presidential orders, R1.4(f), T.1
presidential papers, T.1
presidential proclamations, T.1
proposed rules and regulations, R14.2(b)
regulations, R14.2
revenue materials, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5
revenue rulings, R14.5
rules, R14, R12.2-R14.2
slip opinions, R14.3.2(b)
state, R14, T.1
tax materials, B6.1.5, R14, R14.5
Treasury decisions, R14.5.2
Treasury materials, R14, R14.5
Treasury regulations, R14.1, R14.5
U.N. Administrative Tribunal, R21.7.5
United Kingdom,  T2
varieties of, R14

Administrative Procedure Act, B12.1.1, R12.10, R13.6
Advance sheets, R14.5.2(a), R18.3
Advisory committee notes, R3.4
Affirmed” and “affirming,” in case history, B5.1, B5.1.5, T.8
Affidavits, B10, BT.1
Agencies, administrative (see Administrative agencies)
Agreements, international,
R1.4(c), R13.4(a), R21.1(a), R21.4, R21.12(a)

citation and rules and style guides,BT2.2
sources of law, BT.2, R12.4(d), R12.5(b), T.1


citation and rules and style guides, BT2.2
sources of law, 32, R12.3.2, T.1

All England Law Reports, T.2

Alphabets, foreign, R20.2.4
Alterations in quotations, R5.2
Alternative holding, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
“Amended by”

in constitution citation, R11
in statute citation, R12.2.2(b), R12.6.3

Amended constitution, R11
Amended statutes, R12.3, R12.4(c), R12.6

constitutional, R11
model codes, R12.8.5
restatements, R12.8.5
session laws, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.2.1(b), R12.4(c), R12.6
Treasury regulations, R14.5.1
uniform acts, R12.8.4

“Amendment(s),” abbreviation of, T.13.2,T.16
American Bar Association

abbreviations as ABA, 12.9.5
publications, 12.9.5, R16.6.7
section reports, R12.9.4, R16.7.7

American Jurisprudence (Am. Jur.), B15.2, R15.8(a)
American Law Institute

generally, R12.9.4
proceedings, R16.7.7
publications, R12.8.5

American Law Reports (A.L.R.), R16.7.6
American Samoa

sources of law, T.1.4


authors’ names, B8, R15.1
book titles and pamphlets, B8.1, R15.1
case names, B5.3, R10.2.1(c)
editors’ names, R15.1(d)
footnote citation, R3.2(b)
URL, R18.2.1
volumes, parts, and supplements, R3.1(c)

Annals of Congress, R13.5

European Union materials, R21.8.2
generally, R3.4
U.N. records, R21.7.2, R21.4
World Trade Organization materials, R21.8.4


A.L.R., L.R.A., R16.6.6
generally, R3.4

Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases, R21.5.7
Annual reports

government agencies, R14.2(c)
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, R21.5.4
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1, R21.10

“Appealdismissed,” in case history, R10.7.1(b)
Appeal docketed, R10.1, R10.5(c)
Appeals, R10.1, R10.5(c), R10.7

codes, R12.3.1(g)
generally, R3.4
statutes reprinted in codes, R12.3.1(g)
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual, R12.8.5

“Appendi[x, ces],” abbreviation of, T.16
Arabic numerals

monarchs, T.2
volumes, R3.1


administrative, R14.1, R14.3
international, R21.1(c), R21.6, R21.12(b)

“Arbitrator,” abbreviation of, T.11
Arbitrators, indicated parenthetically, R14.3.1(b)
Argentine Republic

sources of national law,T.2.1


citations rules and style guides, BT2.2
sources of law, T.1


citations rules and style guides,BT2.2
sources of law, R12.4(b), T.1

Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, T.1.1
Article (part of speech)

capitalization of, R8(a)
omission of, R15.3, R16.2, R17.1.1, R21.5.1(a)


capitalization of, R8(a)
omission of, R
appearing in two or more parts,
basic citation forms, R16
citation order, R1.4(i)
collected essays, printed in, R15.5.2
essays in collection, R15.5
foreign periodicals, R20.6
forthcoming publications, R17.2
law reviews and journals, R16-R16.5
magazines, R16.4
multipart, R16.6.5
newspapers, R16.5
order within signal, R1.4(i)
page citation, R3.2
periodicals, R16
typeface in law review citations, B13R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.2
typeface in non-journal legal writing, B13

“Article(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
“Ass’n,” in case names, T.6, T.13
“At,” used in citation of pages or sections, B5.2, B10.1, R1.6.(a), R3.2(a), R3.3, R15.3, R21.7.7(b)
“At,” used in electronic media, B5.1.3, B18.1.1, B18.2.2
“Attorney General,” abbreviation of, T.2, T.11
Attorney General, opinions, R14, R14.4, R18.1.3, T.1
Audio recordings, R18.7(d)
Auditing standards, R12.8.5


sources of national law, T.2

Australia states and territories, T2

sources of national law, T.2

Authentic or official documents, R18
Authorities in text, identification of, R1.1(a)
Authorities previously cited, R4

annotation, R16.6.6
articles in periodicals, R16.1
book reviews, R16.6.1-R.16.6.2
books and pamphlets, R15-R15.1
collected essays, R15.5
colloquy, names not given, R16.6.3
congressional documents and reports, R13.2
direct Internet citations, R18.2.3(c)
essays in collection, R15.5
forewords, R15.6
institutional, R15.1(c)
law reviews and journals, R16.4, R16.7.1
model codes, R12.9.5
multiple, books and pamphlets, R15-R15.1
multivolume works, R15.1
news reports and articles, R16.5
newspapers, R16.6
no author, R4.2(a), R16.4, R16.7(b), R17.4
periodical materials, R16.2
periodicals, surveys and symposia in, R16.7.3
prefaces, R15.6
restatements, R12.8.5
reviewer of book, R16.6.2
standards, R12.8.5
student, R16, R16.6.2
symposium, names not given,R16.7.3
U.N. material, R21.7

Author’s mistakes in quoted material, R5.2(c)
Available at,” R1.6(a), R18, R18.1.4, R18.2