The Bluebook
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adjacent spacing of, R6.1
administrative reporters, R6.1(b), R10.7.2, R14.3.1, T.1
administrative reports, R14.3.1
agencies, R6.1, R14
American Bar Association, R12.9.5
American reporters,
R10.3.2, T.1
“and,” in case names, R10.2.1(c)
arbitral reporters, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.5
authors, R15.1
bound services, T.15
Brazilian materials, T.2
business firms, R10.2.1(h), R15.1(d)
case history, R10.7.1(a), T.8
case names, R10.2
case names, in citations, R10.2.2
case names, international, R21.5
citations, repeating, R4
closing up of, R6.1
codes, statutory, R12.3
commissions, T.1
commonly abbreviated names, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(d), R10.2.2, T.6
congressional reports and documents, R13, T.9
corporate authors, R15.1
countries, (see foreign countries)
court documents,
B10, BT.2
court of decision, R10.4, T.7
dollar symbol, R6.2(d)
editions of books, R15.4, T.14
English-language periodicals, R6.1T.13
English Law Report series, T.2
English monarchs, T.2
European Court and Commission of Human Rights materials, T.3
European Union materials, R21.5.2, R21.9 T.3
explanatory phrases, R2.1(e), R4.1, R10.7.1, T.8
foreign countries, T.10.3
foreign courts,
R20.1-R20.3 (see also name of jurisdiction)
foreign materials, R20,
foreign periodicals, R20.6
generally, R6.1
“hereinafter,” use of, R4.2, R21.4, R21.4.1(b), R21.4.5, R21.8.2(c), R21.8.4(d), T.2
history of cases, R10.7
initials, commonly recognized, B5.1.1(v), B5.3, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(k)
institutional authors, R15.1(c)
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights materials, R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
intergovernmental organizations, R21.8, T.3
international and world organization materials, R21, T.3
judges, titles, R9, T.11
law journals and reviews, T.13
League of Nations materials, R21.8, T.3, T.4
looseleaf services, R19.1, T.15
model codes, R12.8.4
multiple citations of same work, R4
multiple editions and printings, R15.4
municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
names, commonly abbreviated, B5.1.1(v), B5.3, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(k)
new series, R3.1, T.13, T.14
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, R16.5
no date, T.14
officials, titles, R9, T.11
ordinances, R12.8.2
paragraph symbols, R3.3, R3.3(c), R6.2(c), T.16
parties to treaties, R21.4.2
percent symbols, R6.2(d)
periodicals, R6.1(a), R16.6.8, R20.2.3, R20.6, T.13
periodicals, English-language, T.13
periodicals, foreign-language, R20.2.3R20.6
pluralization of, T.6
prepositions in periodical names, T.13
prior case history, R10.7
publishers of services, T.15
publishing terms, T.14
punctuation of, R6.1
repeating citations, R4.1-R4.2
reporters, foreign, R20.3, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
reporters, United States, 
restatements, R3.5, R12.8.5
section symbols, R3.3, R6.2(c)
services, T.15
session laws, R12.4 (see also name of jurisdiction)
spacing of,
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12 (see also name of jurisdiction)
subdivisions (e.g., section, article, chapter),
R3, R6.1(b), R7, R11, R21.4.3, T.16
subsequent case history, R10.7
taxation materials, B12.1.4, R14.5
titles of books and pamphlets, R15.3
titles of individuals, R9, T11
treaty series, T.4
unions, R10.2.1(i)
United Nations materials, R21.7, T.3
“United States,” R6.1(b), R10.2.1(f), R10.2.2, R15.1(d)
use of abbreviations not listed in this book, R6.1

“Abrogated by,” in case history, R10.7.1(c)(ii)
Abstracts, in law reviews, R16.6.2
“Accord,” as signal, R1.2(a)
Acquiescence, in tax cases, R14.5.3, T.8
“Act,” capitalization of, R8(b)(ii)
Action on decision, R14.5.3
Accounting standards, R12.8.5
Acts (see Codes, Session laws, Statutes)
Addresses (speeches), R2.2(a)(ii), R14.7(b), R15.5.2(b), R17.1.5
Administrative agencies

abbreviation of, R14.1
adjudications, R14.3
arbitrations, R14.3
reporters, T.1
reports, R14.3

Administrative cases

citation of, R14.3, T.1
exact date, when required, R14.3.2(b)
number of case, when required, R14.3.2(b)
omission of procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
parallel citation, R14.3.2(b)
recent, R14.3.2
services, when cited, R.14.3.2(b)
“sub nom.,” use on appeal, R10.7.2(a)

Administrative law judges,R8(ii)R9, T.11
Administrative materials

adjudications, R10.1, R14.1, R14.3.1
agency publications, R14.3, R15.1(c)
basic citation forms, R14.1
cases, R10.7.2, R14.1, R14.3, R14.5.3
citation order, R1.4(i)
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.1, R14.2(a), R14.10(c)
compilations of regulations, R14.2
court administrative orders, R14.1, R14.8
executive orders, B6.1.4, R1.4(f), R14.1, R14.5.2(e), R14.7
Federal Register, B11, R12.7, R14.1, R14.2, R14.6(b), R14.7, R14.10(c)
federal rules and regulations, R14.1-R14.2
foreign (see name of country)
R14, T.1
Internal Revenue Service, R12.1.4, T.1
Internet sources, R14.4
names of rules and regulations, R14.2
notices, R14.2(b)
official releases, R14.3.2(a)
opinions, formal advisory, R14.1, R14.4
order within signal, R1.4
popular names of rules and regulations, R14.2
presidential orders, R1.4(f), T.1
presidential papers, T.1
presidential proclamations, T.1
proposed rules and regulations, R14.2(b)
regulations, R14.2
revenue materials, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5
revenue rulings, R14.5
rules, R14, R12.2-R14.2
slip opinions, R14.3.2(b)
state, R14, T.1
tax materials, B6.1.5, R14, R14.5
Treasury decisions, R14.5.2
Treasury materials, R14, R14.5
Treasury regulations, R14.1, R14.5
U.N. Administrative Tribunal, R21.7.5
United Kingdom,  T2
varieties of, R14

Administrative Procedure Act, B12.1.1, R12.10, R13.6
Advance sheets, R14.5.2(a), R18.3
Advisory committee notes, R3.4
Affirmed” and “affirming,” in case history, B5.1, B5.1.5, T.8
Affidavits, B10, BT.1
Agencies, administrative (see Administrative agencies)
Agreements, international,
R1.4(c), R13.4(a), R21.1(a), R21.4, R21.12(a)

citation and rules and style guides,BT2.2
sources of law, BT.2, R12.4(d), R12.5(b), T.1


citation and rules and style guides, BT2.2
sources of law, 32, R12.3.2, T.1

All England Law Reports, T.2

Alphabets, foreign, R20.2.4
Alterations in quotations, R5.2
Alternative holding, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
“Amended by”

in constitution citation, R11
in statute citation, R12.2.2(b), R12.6.3

Amended constitution, R11
Amended statutes, R12.3, R12.4(c), R12.6

constitutional, R11
model codes, R12.8.5
restatements, R12.8.5
session laws, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.2.1(b), R12.4(c), R12.6
Treasury regulations, R14.5.1
uniform acts, R12.8.4

“Amendment(s),” abbreviation of, T.13.2,T.16
American Bar Association

abbreviations as ABA, 12.9.5
publications, 12.9.5, R16.6.7
section reports, R12.9.4, R16.7.7

American Jurisprudence (Am. Jur.), B15.2, R15.8(a)
American Law Institute

generally, R12.9.4
proceedings, R16.7.7
publications, R12.8.5

American Law Reports (A.L.R.), R16.7.6
American Samoa

sources of law, T.1.4


authors’ names, B8, R15.1
book titles and pamphlets, B8.1, R15.1
case names, B5.3, R10.2.1(c)
editors’ names, R15.1(d)
footnote citation, R3.2(b)
URL, R18.2.1
volumes, parts, and supplements, R3.1(c)

Annals of Congress, R13.5

European Union materials, R21.8.2
generally, R3.4
U.N. records, R21.7.2, R21.4
World Trade Organization materials, R21.8.4


A.L.R., L.R.A., R16.6.6
generally, R3.4

Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases, R21.5.7
Annual reports

government agencies, R14.2(c)
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, R21.5.4
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1, R21.10

“Appealdismissed,” in case history, R10.7.1(b)
Appeal docketed, R10.1, R10.5(c)
Appeals, R10.1, R10.5(c), R10.7

codes, R12.3.1(g)
generally, R3.4
statutes reprinted in codes, R12.3.1(g)
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual, R12.8.5

“Appendi[x, ces],” abbreviation of, T.16
Arabic numerals

monarchs, T.2
volumes, R3.1


administrative, R14.1, R14.3
international, R21.1(c), R21.6, R21.12(b)

“Arbitrator,” abbreviation of, T.11
Arbitrators, indicated parenthetically, R14.3.1(b)
Argentine Republic

sources of national law,T.2.1


citations rules and style guides, BT2.2
sources of law, T.1


citations rules and style guides,BT2.2
sources of law, R12.4(b), T.1

Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, T.1.1
Article (part of speech)

capitalization of, R8(a)
omission of, R15.3, R16.2, R17.1.1, R21.5.1(a)


capitalization of, R8(a)
omission of, R
appearing in two or more parts,
basic citation forms, R16
citation order, R1.4(i)
collected essays, printed in, R15.5.2
essays in collection, R15.5
foreign periodicals, R20.6
forthcoming publications, R17.2
law reviews and journals, R16-R16.5
magazines, R16.4
multipart, R16.6.5
newspapers, R16.5
order within signal, R1.4(i)
page citation, R3.2
periodicals, R16
typeface in law review citations, B13R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.2
typeface in non-journal legal writing, B13

“Article(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
“Ass’n,” in case names, T.6, T.13
“At,” used in citation of pages or sections, B5.2, B10.1, R1.6.(a), R3.2(a), R3.3, R15.3, R21.7.7(b)
“At,” used in electronic media, B5.1.3, B18.1.1, B18.2.2
“Attorney General,” abbreviation of, T.2, T.11
Attorney General, opinions, R14, R14.4, R18.1.3, T.1
Audio recordings, R18.7(d)
Auditing standards, R12.8.5


sources of national law, T.2

Australia states and territories, T2

sources of national law, T.2

Authentic or official documents, R18
Authorities in text, identification of, R1.1(a)
Authorities previously cited, R4

annotation, R16.6.6
articles in periodicals, R16.1
book reviews, R16.6.1-R.16.6.2
books and pamphlets, R15-R15.1
collected essays, R15.5
colloquy, names not given, R16.6.3
congressional documents and reports, R13.2
direct Internet citations, R18.2.3(c)
essays in collection, R15.5
forewords, R15.6
institutional, R15.1(c)
law reviews and journals, R16.4, R16.7.1
model codes, R12.9.5
multiple, books and pamphlets, R15-R15.1
multivolume works, R15.1
news reports and articles, R16.5
newspapers, R16.6
no author, R4.2(a), R16.4, R16.7(b), R17.4
periodical materials, R16.2
periodicals, surveys and symposia in, R16.7.3
prefaces, R15.6
restatements, R12.8.5
reviewer of book, R16.6.2
standards, R12.8.5
student, R16, R16.6.2
symposium, names not given,R16.7.3
U.N. material, R21.7

Author’s mistakes in quoted material, R5.2(c)
Available at,” R1.6(a), R18, R18.1.4, R18.2

Ballentine’s Law DictionaryR15.8(a)

appellate panels, R10.4(a), T.1T.7
R10.2.1(b), R19.1R19.2(a)
courts, R1.4(d),R10.2.1(b), T.1
pending or unreported cases, R10.8.1(c)

Bankruptcy ReporterT.1
Bar publications, R16.7.7
“Baron,” abbreviation of
Basic charters, international and world organizations, R1.4(g), R21.1-R21.4, R21.4.5, R21.7.11, R21.8.2R21.9

bills and resolutions, R13.2
congressional, R13.2
state, R13.2(c)

Black’s Law Dictionary, B8.1R15.8(a)
Blackstone’s Commentaries, R15.8(b)
Block quotations,
The Bluebook,
Bloomberg BNA Services, T.16
Board of Tax Appeals

citation of cases, B6.1.5, R1.4(d), R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3T.1

Book notes, R16.2, R16.6.2(c), R16.7(b)
Book reviews

citation order, R1.4(i)

“Book(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Books and pamphlets

ABA publications, R12.8.6R16.6.7
abbreviation of title, R15.9.1
administrative agency records and reports,
A.L.I. publications,
author, R15
basic form of citation, R15
book reviews,
R16.6.1, R16.6.2(c)R16.7(a)
capitalization, R8(a), R15.3R20.2.2(b)
citation, components of, 
citation analyzed, 
citation order, 
collected documents, 
collected essays, 
congressional materials,
corporate author, R15.1(c)
date, R15.4
date in title, R15.4(a)
date not given by source, 
Declaration of Independence
dictionaries, legal, 
editor, when indicated, R15.2
encyclopedias, legal, 
The Federalist,
footnote typefaces, R14.10R15.3
forthcoming publications, R17.2
generally, R15
given names of authors, R15.1
government agencies as authors,
R15.1(c), R15.5.1
government agency reports, R14.2(c)
institutional authors, R15.1(c)
Internet sources, R15.9(b)
italicization, when referred to in text,
law reviews and journals, B9.1.1, B13, R2.1, R16, R20.7, T.13
legal dictionaries and encyclopedias, B8.1, R15.8(a)
letters, R15.5.2(b), R15.9.1, R17.1.3
manuscripts, typed, R17.1.1, R17.2
multiple authors, R15.1(b)
multiple editions, R15.4
multiple printings, R15.4(a)
multivolume works, B8.1, R3.1(a), R15.1, R15.3
name of author, R15.1
names and titles, capitalization, R8, R15.3, R20.2.2(b)
number, serial, R15.7
order within signal, B4.5, R1.4(i)
page citation, R3.2, R15
paragraph citation, R3.3, R15
periodicals, T.13
photoduplicated reprints, R15.4(d), T.14
place of publication not given by source, R15.4(c)
place of publication, when required, R15.4(c)
pocket parts, R15.4(d)
pre-1900 works, R15.4(c)
prefaces, R15.6
printings, R15.4(a)
publication number, R15.4(a)
repagination, R15.8(b)
repeated citation of, R4.1-R4.2
reprints, R15.4(a), R15.5.2(a)
restatements, B12.1.1R12.9.4
sections, R3.1, R3.3, R6.2(c)
serial number, R15.7
series of, R15.7(b)
short citation forms, R15.9
shorter works in collection, R15.5, R15.10.1
special citation forms, R15.8

star pages,R3.2R15.8(b)
subdivisions of, R3
subtitles, omitted, R15.3
supplements, R15.4(d)
theses, unpublished, R17.1.2
titles, R15.3
translator, when given, R15.2
typeface, B13, R2.1(b), R15
typeface, authors, B13, R2.1(b)
typeface in court documents and legal memoranda, B13
typeface in law review citations, R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.2(a)
unpublished works, R17
volume designations, R3.1(a), R15.3
well-known works, B8.1, R15.8
writer of, R15.1
year, R15.4

Bound services

abbreviations, T.15
generally, R19
typeface, R19.1


alterations in quotations, R5.2(d)
establishing short citation or translation, used in, R4.2, R20.2, R20.5.2, R20.6
quotations, used in, R5.2
volume designations, R3.1(a), R19.1(a)
years, R3.1(a), R19.1(b)


sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2

Briefs and legal memoranda (see Court documents and legal memoranda)
Briefs and records, citation of

citation order, R1.4(h)
generally, R10.8.3

British Columbia

sources of law, T.2

British materials (see England)
Broadcasts, R18.6
“Bros.,” in case names, B5.3, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)T.6
Business firms, in case names, R10.2.1(h), R15.1(d)
“But cf.,” as signal, R1.2(c)
“But see,” as signal, R1.2(c)
Byline, newspaper articles, R16.6


sources of law, T.1


sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2

Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal CitationT.2
Canal Zone

sources of law, T.1

Canon Law, T.2
Canons of Professional Responsibility,
Cantons, Swiss, T.2

change in quotation, indication of, R5.2(a)
court documents and legal memoranda,
courts, R8(b)
generally, R8
headings, R8(a)
Internet main page titles and URLs, R8
party designations, B10.6.2
people or groups, nouns referring to, 
titles of books and articles,
R8(a), R15.3R16.2
titles of foreign documents, 

Case comments in law reviews, R16.6.2
Case history (see History of cases)
Case names

abbreviations, R10.2, T.6
abbreviations, in citations, R10.2.2, T.6
abbreviations, in textual sentences, R10.2.1
administrative actions, R14.3
“administrator,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
ampersand, use of in text,
appeal, when different on, R10.7.2
“appellee,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
arbitrations, international, R21.6
“Ass’n,” abbreviation in text,
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a)
“Bros.,” abbreviation in text,
business firms, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)
citations, abbreviations in, R10.2.2, T.6
cite first listed party only, R10.2.1(a)
“Co.,” abbreviation in text, R10.2.1(c)
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, as party, R10.2.1(j)
Common Market cases,
common names, when different from name in reporter, R10.2.1(k)R10.9(a)
consolidated actions, 
“Corp.,” abbreviation in text,
court documents and legal memoranda, B5.1.1
“d/b/a,” omission of,
descriptive terms,
different on appeal, R10.7.2
“estate of,” 
“et al.,”
European Court of Justice,
“executor,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
“ex rel.,” 
first word, retention in full, 
foreign cases,
generally, R10.2
geographical terms, R10.2.1(f)
given names and initials of parties, R10.2.1(g)
“id.,” use of, 
“In re,” 
R10.2.1(b), R10.3.1, R10.9(a)
in rem actions, R10.2.1(a)R10.2.1(d)
“Inc.,” abbreviation in text,
“Inc.,” when omitted, R10.2.1(h)
Internal Revenue Commissioner, as party, R10.2.1(j)
international arbitrations,
International Court of Justice,
R21.1(b), R21.5.1
“Judgment of,” R10.2.1
Latin words italicized,
“licensee,” omission of,
“Ltd.,” abbreviation in text,
“Ltd.,” when omitted, R10.2.1(h)
mandamus actions, R10.2.1(k)
multiple dispositions, when indicated, 
“No.,” abbreviation in text,
omissions in, R10.2
parenthetical indication of alternate name, R10.2.1(a), R10.2.1(k)
parties, only first-listed named, R10.2.1(a)
partnerships, R10.2.1(a)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1, R21.5.1
popular names, R10.2., R10.2.1(d)
procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
real property, as party, R10.2.1(a)
running heads, words omitted in, R10.2.1
short citation form, to entire decision, R10.9(a)
short forms, R10.9
short names, R10.2.1(k), R10.9(a)
state as party in state court decision, R10.2.1(f)
surnames, R10.2.1(g)
textual references, B5.3, R2, R2.2(a), R10.2
“The,” omission of, R10.2.1(d)
transcripts, R10.8.3
“trustee,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
typeface used in court documents, B5.1.1, B13, R2
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1(a)
typeface used in law review text, R2.2(a)
unions as parties, R10.2.1(i)
“Will of,” R10.2.1(b)

Case notes in law reviews, R16.6.2
Case number

administrative cases, R14.3.2
appeal or petition for certiorari, R10.1, R10.8.1
court documents, R10.8.3
Federal Cases, T.1, T.1
pending cases, R10.1, R10.8.1
unreported cases, R10.1, R10.8.1

Case writeups

citation of, R16.6-T.1
cited with case, R1.6(b)

Cases (see also individual jurisdiction or court)

administrative actions, R14.1, R14.3.1
appeal, disposition on, R10.1
appeal docketed, R10.1
arbitrations, R14.1, R14.3, R21.1(c), R21.6, R21.12(b)
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a), R10.3.1(b), R10.9(a), R19
basic citation forms, R10.1
before decision, R10.1
Bloomberg, R18.3
briefs, citation of,
B10.1, R1.4(h), R10.1, R10.8.3
British, T.2
certiorari, citation of petition for, R10.1, R10.8.3, R18.4.1
citation, basic forms of, R10.1
citation, components of, B3-B4, R10
citation order, R1.4(d)
citation to particular page, R3.2
civil law (foreign), R20.3.2
commentary on, cited with case, R1.6(c), R20.3.2(d)
common law (foreign), R20.3.1
components of citations, R10
computerized research services, B5.1.3, R18.1.1
concurring opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1
country, indication of, R20.1
court of decision, R10.4
court of decision, abbreviations, T.7
court of decision, American, R10.4
court of decision, other jurisdictions, R20.3
court, when indicated, R10.4
dates, R10, R10.5, R10.8.1
denial of rehearing, R10.7
dictum, R10.6.1(a)
different name on appeal, R10.7.2
dissenting opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1
docket number, B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.8, R10.9, R14.3.2, R21.5.4
dual citation of sources, B5.1.3, B5.1.5, B5.2, R10.3.1, R10.3.3, R10.8.3, R10.9(b), R14.3.2(b)
electronic databases, B5.1.3, R10.9(a), R18
England, T.2
European Union, R21.8.2
explanatory phrases, R10.7.1
federal court, T.1
filed, R10.1
foreign, R20.3.2
history on remand, R10.7
history, prior and subsequent, R10.7
in rem, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(b)
interim orders, R10.1
international and world organization, R21.1, R21.5
international arbitrations, R21.6
International Court of Justice, R21.5.1
Internet sources, R18.2
italicization of names in court documents, B13
italicization of names in text, R2.2
italicization of procedural phrases in citations, R2.1(a)
italicized words in history of, R2.1(a), T.8
Judge or Justice writing opinion, R10.6
LEXIS, cited to, B5.1.3, R18
medium neutral citation, R10.3.3
memoranda, citations to, R10.8.3
memorandum decision, R10.6.1
motions, citation to, R10.8.3
name cited as in official report, R2.2(b)
named in text, initial and subsequent citation, B5.3, R4.1, R10.2, R10.9(c)
names, B5.1.1, R10.2
newspapers, cited in, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R16.5
no name, citation of, R10.2.1
non-common-law, R20.3.2
number of case, R10.1, R10.8.1
official reporters, when cited, B10.1.2, R10.3
online, R10.8.1
order within signal,
page citations, R3.2(a)
parallel citation of sources, B5.1.3, R10.3.1
parenthetical information, R10.6
pending, B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.5, R10.8.1
per curiam decisions, R10.6.1(b)
periodicals, when cited, R10.3.1(b)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
plurality opinion, R10.6.1(a)
prior history,
procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
public domain format, R10.3.3
published decision, R10.1
recent, R10.1, R10.5
records, citation of, B10.1, R10.1, R10.8.3
releases of administrative agencies, cited to, R14.2
repeating citations of, R4.1, R10.9
reporters, R10.3
reporters, defined, R10.3.2
reporters, reprinted, R10.3.2
services, appearing in, R10.1
services, when cited, R10.3.1(b)
short citation form, R10.9
slip opinions, reported in, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R10.8.1(b)
sources, R10.3
state courts, R10.4(b), T.1
statutory material, cited with, R1.6(b)
subsequent history, R10.1, R10.7
transcript of record, citations to, B10, R10.1, R10.8.3
typeface used in court documents, B13
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1
typeface used in law review text, R2.1
unofficial reporter, when cited, R10.3.1(b), R14.3.2(b)
unreported, R10.8.1(b), R18.1.1
weight of authority, B5.1.4, R10.6.1, R10.7.1
Westlaw, cited to, R18, R18.2
year of decision, B5.1.3, R10.5

Catholic Church, codes, T.2
CD-ROM, R18.3, R18.7(b)

applied for, granted, denied, R10.1, R10.7
indication in case history, R10.7
petition, citation of, R10.7
“sub nom.” not used, R10.7.2(a)

“Cf.,” as signal, R1.2(a)
C.F.R., B6.1.4, R1.4(f), R14.1-R14.2, R18.1.3, T.1
“Chancellor,” abbrevation of, T.2

codes, statutory, R3.3
number, when given for federal statute, R12.3.1(b)

 “Chapter(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Charters, international organizations, R21, R21.7.11

“Chief Baron,” “Justice,” “Judge,”

abbreviation of, T.11

Chile, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2 

China, People’s Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

“Circuit,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Circuit courts of appeals (see Courts)
Circuit courts, old federal,
R10.4(a), T.1
Circuit Justices, T.1
Citation of commentary with case or book, R1.6(c)
Citation order, R1.4
Citation sentences and clauses, B2, R1.1

(see also specific types of material)
abbreviations of case names,
analogous authority, R1.2(a)
authentic or official online documents, R18-1(a)
authoritativeness, order within citation,
authorities, R1.4
background authority, R1.2(d)
citations analyzed, R1.1
comparing authorities, R1.2(b)
contradictory proposition, R1.2(c)
court documents and legal memoranda, BT.2
direct contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct support, R1.2(a)
footnotes, B13, R1.1(b)
law review text and footnotes, B13, R5.1, R1.1
material cited more than once, R4, R15.9, R16.7, R17.4, R18.7, R19.2, R20.7, R21.12
numerous authorities, R4.1
omission from quotation, indication of, R5.3
opposing proposition, R1.2(c)
order of, R1.4
pages, R3.2
parenthetical explanations, R1.5
placement, R1.4
placement after quotation, R5.1-R5.2
punctuation of, R1.3, R2.1, R3.3
quotations, R5
related authority, R1.6
repeating citations, R4
sampling of authorities, R1.1
signals in, R1.2
string citations, R1.1, R1.3
subdivisions, R3
supplementary material, R1.2(d)
supporting proposition, R1.2(a)
typeface used, B13, R2
weight of, R10.6

Citations analyzed

books, R15
cases, B5.1.3
constitutions, R11
periodical materials, R16
regulations, R14.2(a)
rules, R14.2(a)
statutes, R12
treaties, R21.4
United Nations materials, R21.7

Cited in,”use of,R1.6(a)
“Citing,” use of in case parentheticals,

City and county ordinances, R12.8.2
“City of,” when omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
Civil law jurisdictions (see also name of jurisdiction)

cases, R20.3.2, T.2
codes, R20.5.2, T.2
constitutions, R20.4, T.2
courts, T.2
statutes, T.2

Civil Rights Act of 1964, R13.6
“Clause(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

Clean Air Act, R13.6
Closing up of abbreviations, R6.1
C.M.L.R. (Common Market Law Reports), R21.5.2(b), T.3
“Co.,” in case names, T.6
“Code,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Code, Internal Revenue (see Internal Revenue Code)
Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.),
R14.1-R14.2, R14.10, R18.1.3, T.1
Code of Justinian, T.2
Code of Theodosius, T.2

    (see also Statutes)
administrative compilations, R14.1-R14.2
American, R12.2.1
appendices, R12.3.1(g)
appendix with reprinted statute, R12.3.1(g)
basic citation forms, R12.1
chapters, R12.3.1(b)
compilations of, R12.3.1(f)
components of citation, R12.2-R12.3
date, R12.3.2
editors, R12.3.1(d)
electronic databases, R18.1.2
ethics, R12.8.6
federal, R12.2-R12.3
foreign, R20.5, T.2(see also name of individual country)
future location of statutes,
historical fact of enactment, R12.2.2(b)
Internal Revenue, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
legislative materials, B6.1.6, R13
LEXIS, R18.1
materially different from statute, R12.2.2(c)
official and unofficial, R12.3
ordinances, city, R12.8.2
ordinances, county, R12.8.2
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
parallel citation to, R12.4
pocket parts, R12.3.1(e)
positive law, enacted into, R12.2.2(c)
publishers of, R12.3.1(d)
Roman law, T.2
scattered sections, R12.2.2(a)
secondary sources cited to, R12.1, R12.5
sections cited, R12.2
state, R12.3, T.1(see also name of individual state)
statutes, when cited to,
subject-matter, R12.3.1(c)
supplements, R12.3.1(e), R12.3.2
tax materials, B6.1.5, R12.8.1, R14.5
titles, R12.3.1(b)
Treasury materials, B6.1.5, R12.8.1, R14.5
typeface used, R12.2.1
uncodified laws, R12.3.1(f), R12.8.2
uniform acts, B6.1.3, B5.2
unofficial, differently numbered, R12.8.1
volumes, R12.3.1(b)
Westlaw, R18.1
which to cite, R12.2.1
year, R12.3.2


session laws, parenthetical indication of, R12.4

Collected works

citation of works in, R15.5
editor, R15.2, R15.5
“id.” short form, R15.9
“in,” used to introduce collection, R1.6(a)
parallel citation to, using “reprinted in,” R1.6(a)
“supra” short form, R15.9

Colloquia, in periodicals, R16.6.3

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

“Column(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

citing commentary with case or statute, R1.6(c)
citing multiple sections of code, R3.3(b)
“compare . . . with” signal, R1.2(b)
italicization, R2.1(f), R2.2(c), T.8
periodical names, T.13
titles ending in dates, R3.2(a), R15.3

Command number, English, T.2
Command Papers, English, T.2
“Comment,” abbreviation of, T.16
“Comment,” designating student work, R16.6.2(b)

model codes, R12.8.6
periodicals, R16.6.2(b)
restatements, R12.8.5
rules of ethics, R12.8.6
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
standards, R12.8.5

Commerce Clearing House (CCH) services, R19.1T.15
        (see also Services and topical reporters)
Commerce Court,
T.1, T.7
Commercial electronic databases (see Electronic databases)
“Commissioner,” abbreviation of,
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, in case names, R10.2.1(j)
Committee materials, UN, R21.7.2, R21.7.3, R21.7.8
Committee prints, R13.1, R13.4
Common law jurisdictions

cases, R20.3.1, R20.7(a), T.2
codes, R20.5.1, T.2
constitutions, R20.4, T.2
statutes, R20.5, R20.7(c), T.2

Common Market Law Reports (C.M.L.R.), R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3
Common Market materials, R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3, T.15
Common Market Reporter, R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3, T.15
“Commonwealth of,”

capitalization, R8(b)
when omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)

“Compare . . . with . . . ,” as signal, R1.2(b)

administrative regulations, B6.1.4, R14.2
treaties, R21.1(a), T.4

Compilations of statutes (see also Codes, Statutes)

federal, R12.3.1
foreign, R20.5, T.2
state, R12.3.1, T.1

Compiler of codes, R12.3.1(d)
Computerized research services (see Electronic databases)
Concurrent resolutions,
Concurring opinions, B5.1.4, R10.5(d)
“Congress,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Congressional debates, R13.1, R13.5
Congressional Globe, R13.5
Congressional materials

bills and resolutions, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.2
committee prints, R13.1, R13.4
concurrent resolutions, R13.2(b)
debates, R13.1, R13.5
documents, R13.1, R13.4
hearings, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.3
joint resolutions, R13.2
parallel citations, R13.2(a), R13.2(b), R13.4, R13.6
reports, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.4
resolutions, R13.1, R13.2
secondary authority, R13.2(a), R13.6
unnumbered documents, R13.4(c)

Congressional Record

daily edition, R13.1, R13.5
debates, R13.5
permanent edition, R13.5
resolutions cited to, R13.5, R13.6

Conjunctions, capitalization of, R8(a)

citation rule and style guide, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Consecutive pages or footnotes, citation of, R3.2(a)
Consecutive sections of codes, R3.3(b)
Consolidated actions, case names, R10.2.1(a)

amended provisions, R11
capitalization of parts of, R8(b)
citation order, R1.4(a)
electronic media, R18.1.2
federal and state, R11
foreign, R20.4, R20.7(b), T.2
generally, B7, R11
order within signal, B4.5, R1.4(a)
repealed provisions, R11
short form, R11
subdivision, R11
superseded, R11
typeface in footnotes, R11

“Construed in,” use of, R1.6(c)
“Construing,” use of, R1.6(c)
“Contra,” as signal, R1.2(c)
Conventions, international, R21.1, R21.4, R21.8.1, R21.12(a)
“Corp.,” in case names, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h), R15.1(d)

abbreviations, R10.2.1(c), R15.1(d)
authors, R15.1
case names, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)

Corpus Juris Secundum (C.J.S.), R15.8(a)
Council of Europe materials, R21.8.3

    (see also name of jurisdiction)
abbreviated in case names,
abbreviated in international law cases, R21.5.1(a)
abbreviated in international arbitrations, R21.6
abbreviated treaty citations, R21.1(a), R21.4.2
abbreviations of, T.10

County and city ordinances, R12.8.2
“Court,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Court administrative orders, R10.8.4
Court documents and legal memoranda

abbreviations of documents in, B10.1
audio recordings of court proceedings, R10.8.3
block quotations in,
books, citations to, B8.1
cases, citations to, B5
capitalization in, B10.6.2
constitutions, citations to, B7
Electronic Case Filings, B17.1.4, B10.8.3
explanatory parentheticals in,
federal taxation materials, citations to, B6.1.5
Internal Revenue Code, citations to, B6.1.5
journal and newspaper, citations to, B9
parallel citations in, B5.1.3, B5.2
periodicals materials, citations to, B16
signals in,
short forms in, B5.2, B6.2, B8.2, B9.2, B10.5
statutes, citations to, B6
typeface of citations in, B13

Court filings, R10.8.3
Court of Claims, T.1
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, T.1
Court of decision

abbreviations, R10.4, T.7
American, B5.1.3, R10.4
civil law jurisdictions, R20.3.2(a)
common law jurisdictions, R20.3.1
international arbitrations, R21.6
international courts and tribunals, R21.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
B5.1.3, R10.4(b)
when indicated, R10.1, R10.4, R10.8.1, R20.3
when omitted, R10.4

Court of International Trade, T.1
Court of Justice of the European Communities, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, T.3
Court of Military Appeals, T.1

    (see also name of court or jurisdiction)
R10.4, T.7
administrative orders, R14.8
Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit, Court of, R10.4(a), T.1
Appeals, District of Columbia Municipal Court of, T.1
Appeals for the Armed Forces, Court of, T.1
appeals, United States courts of,
R10.4(a), T.1
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, R21.6
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a), R10.4(a), T.1
bankruptcy appellate panels, R10.4(a), T.1
Board of Tax Appeals, T.1
circuit courts, old federal, R10.4(a), T.1
Circuit Justices, T.1
civil law countries, T.2 
(see also name of jurisdiction)
Claims Court, T.1
Commerce Court, T.1
common law countries, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, Court of, T.1
Court of First Instance, R21.5.2, T.3
Court of Justice of the European Communities, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, T.32
Customs and Patent Appeals, Court of,
district, federal, 89, T.1
Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
English, T.2
European Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b), R21.5.3, T.3
federal, BT.2, T.1
foreign countries, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court,
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, R10.4(a)
foreign, language used in citation of, R20.2.2
General Court, R21.5.2, T.3
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,
R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b)R21.5.4T.3
international, R21.5
International Criminal Tribunals, R21.1(b), R21.5.6
International Criminal Court, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
International Court of Justice, R1.4(d), R21.1(b), R21.5, T.3
International Trade, Court of, R1.4(d), 
Judicial Panel on Multi-District Litigation, T.1
Military Appeals, Court of, T.1
Military Review, Court of, T.1
Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals, T.1
old circuit, federal, R10.4(a), T.1
Pennsylvania, early federal and state, R20.3.2
Permanent Court of Arbitration, R21.1(c), R21.6
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
Rail Reorganization Court, T.1
rules of evidence and procedure, R12.8.3
state, BT.2, T.1
Tax Court, R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3, T.1
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
terms, R9
territories, BT.2, T.1
U.S. Supreme (see U.S. Supreme Court)

Courts of Military Review, T.1

court documents and legal memoranda, B13
generally, R3.5
groups of authorities previously cited, R3.5
order of authorities, R1.4(j)
previous footnotes, R3.5
textual material in same work, R3.5

Cumulative Bulletin, B6.1.5, R14.5.2(e), T.1
Customs Court, T.1
Cyclopedia of the Law of Private Corporations, R15.4(a)
Czech Republic

sources of national law, T.2


graphical material, used in citing, R3.2(d)
page range, used in citing, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
sections of code, used in citing, R3.3(b)

Databases (see Electronic databases)

administrative compilations, R14.2
amended constitutional provisions, R11
amended statutes, R12.6.3
bilateral and multilateral treaties, R21.4, R21.4.5(a)
books and pamphlets, R15, R15.4
case history, R10.5, R10.7
cases, R10.1, R10.5
cases, cited to U.S.L.W., R10.1, R10.5(d)
cases, in electronic databases, R10.3.1(b), R18.1.1
cases, in looseleaf services, R10.1, R10.8.1, R19.1(d)
cases, in newspapers, R10.1, R10.3.1(b)
cases, in slip opinions, R10.1, R10.8.1(b)
cases, international, R21.1(b)
cases, International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1(e)
cases, pending, R10.5(c), R10.8.1(c)
cases, unreported, R10.1, R10.8.1(c)
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.1, R14.2
codifications of statutes, R12, R12.3.2, R12.4(e)
constitutions, when used, R11
enactment, session laws, R12.4(d)
ethical opinions, R12.8.6
ethical rules, R12.8.6
exact date, administrative cases, R14.3.2(a)
exact date, cases, R10.1, R10.5, R10.8.1(b), R19.1(d)
exact date, Congressional debates, R13.1
exact date, international agreements, R13, R21.4.4
exact date, International Court of Justice cases, R21.1(b)R21.5.1(e)
exact date, letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
exact date, ordinances, R12.8.2
exact date, periodicals, R16, R16.4
exact date, services, R19.1(d)
exact date, statutes, R12.4
exact date, treaties, R21.4.4
exact date, unpublished works, R15.5.2(b), R17
exact date, unreported cases, B5.1.3, R10.8.1(b), R18.1.1
exchange of notes, R21.4.4
filing of appeal, R10.1
filing of cases, R10.1, R10.8.1(b)
forewords, R15.6
Internal Revenue Code, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
international agreements, R21.1(a), R21.4.4
Internet sources, R18.2.3(e)
legislative materials, B6.1.6, R13
looseleaf statutory codifications, R12.3.2
model codes, R12.8.5
multilateral treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4.5(a)
multiple decisions in one year, R10.5(d)
multivolume works, R15.1, R15.3
newspapers, B9.1, B9.1.4, R16, R16.5(a)
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
periodicals, R16
pocket parts, books, R15.4(d)
prefaces, R15.6
prior to 1900, books, R15.4(c)
regnal years, in English statutes, T.2, T.2
repealed constitutional provisions, R11
repealed statutes, R12.6.2
restatements, R12.8.5
rules of court, B6.1.3, R12.8.3
rules of procedure, B6.1.3, R12.8.3
services, R19.1(d)
session laws, B6.1.1, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.3.2
statutes, amended, R12.6.3
statutes, cited to session laws, R12.5(b)
statutes, foreign, R20.5
statutes, in current code, R12.2.1(a), R12.3.2
statutes, in supplements to code, R12.3.1(e)
statutes, not in current code, R12.2.1(b), R12.3.1(f)
statutes, repealed, R12.6.2
statutes, uniform acts, R12.8.4
supplements, books, R3.1(c), R15.4(d)
supplements, codes, R3.1(c), R12.3.1(e)
titles ending in, R3.2(a), R15.3
treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4.4
U.N. materials, R21.7
undated journals, R16.4
uniform acts, B6.1.3, R12.8.4
unreported cases, R10.1, R10.8.1
U.S. Supreme Court cases, R10, R10.5
year of decision of case, R10.5
“d/b/a,” omission in case names, R10.2.1(a)


congressional, R13.1, R13.5, R18.1.3
European Parliamentary Assembly, R21.8.2(b), R21.8.3, T.3
legislative, R13.1, R13.5
Republic of Ireland, T.2
United Kingdom, T.2

Decimal point, R6.2(a)
“Decision(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Declaration of Independence, R3.3

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law,
R3.3(b), R12.3.1(b), R12.9(c), T.1

Deletions from quotations, R5.1(a), R5.3
Denial of certiorari, R2.1(e)-R.2.1(f), R10.7, 340
Denial of rehearing, when given, R10.7
Department of Agriculture, T.1
Department of Commerce
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, T.1
Patent and Trademark Office, T.1

Department of Education, T.1
Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, T.1
Department of Homeland Security, T.1
Department of Justice,  T.1
Department of Labor, 
Department of State publications,
R21.4.5, R21.11, T.13
Department of the Interior,  T.1
Department of the Treasury, T.1
Department, state court,
B5.1.3, R10.4(b)
Depublished cases, R10.8.1(d)
Descriptive terms, omitted in case names, R10.2.1(e)
“Developments in the Law,” R16.6.2(b)
Dictionaries, B8.1, R15.8(a)
Dictum, indication of, R7(b), R10.6.1(a)
Digest of Justinian, T.2
Digest of United States Practice in International Law, R21.11(a)
Digests, international, R21.11(c)
Disciplinary rules, R12.8.6
Discussion drafts, R12.8.5
Dismissal of appeal, R10.5(c), R10.7.1(b), T.8
Dismissal without opinion, R10.5(c)
Dissenting opinions, B5.1.4, R3.2(a), R10.6.1(a)
Dissertations, unpublished, R17.1.2, R18.2.2(c)
District court, federal

cases in, R10.4(a), T.1
rules of, R12.8.3

District of Columbia

Circuit Court of Appeals for the, R10.4(a), T.1
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law,

Divided court, parenthetical indication of, R10.6.1, R10.8.1
Division, federal courts, 
Docket number

appeal or petition for certiorari, R10.1
briefs, records, motions, memoranda, R10.8.3
pending cases, R10.8.1
renumbering, R10.8.1(b)
unreported cases, R10.1, R10.8.1(c)

Document number

intergovernmental organizations’ materials, R21.8.1-R21.8.2, R21.8.5
U.N. publications, R21.7


intergovernmental organizations, R21.8
legislative, R13.1R13.4
published, collected, R15.5.2(a)
U.N., R21.7
unpublished, collected, R15.5.2(b)

Dollar amounts

numerals used, R6.2

Dual citation, when required, B5.1.3, R10.3
DVDs, R18.5

Economic and Social Council, official records, U.N., R21.7.1, R21.7.8(a), T.3
E.C.R. (European Community Reports), R21.5.2(a), T.3

abbreviation of, R15.4(a), T.14
books and pamphlets, R15.4
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.2(a), T.1
Congressional Record, R13.2(a), R13.5
The Federalist, R15.8(c)
first edition, when cited, R15.4(c), R15.8(b)
names of, R15.4
when indicated, books and pamphlets, R15.4
year, R15.4


books and pamphlets, R15.2
codes, R12.3.1(d)
collected works, R15.5
reporters, R10.3.2
shorter works in collection, R15.5

“E.g.,” as signal, B4.3, R1.2(a)

Egypt, Arab Republic of
sources of national law, T.2
Electionic Case Filings (ECF), R10.8.3
Electronic databases

Bloomberg, R10.8, R18.3, T.15
books and pamphlets, R15.9 .
cases, B5.1.3, R10.8.1(a), R18.1.1, R15.1
containing separately published works, 
Dialog, R18.1, R18.1.4
generally, R18.1
legislative materials, R18.3
LEXIS, B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R10.9(a)
R18.3, R10.9(a), R18.1.2, R18.7(a)
news reports, R16.5(d), R18.1.4
periodicals, R16.7.8, R18.3
secondary materials, R18.1.4
short citation forms, R10.9(a), R18.7(a)
statutes, R18.1.2
VersusLaw, R18.1.2
Westlaw, B5.1.3, R18.1, R18.7(a)

Eleventh Circuit (see Fifth Circuit Split)
Ellipsis, R5.1
E-Mail, R18.2.4
Emergency Court of Appeals, R1.4(c)T.1, T.7
Emphasis in quotations, R5.2(d)
Emphasis, italics for, R2.2(a), R7(a)
“En banc,” parenthetical indication of, R2.1(e), R7(b), R10.6.1(a)
Encyclopedias, legal, B8.1, R15.8(a)
Endnotes, R3.1(c)
“Enforced,” in case history, R10.7.2, T.8
“Enforcing,” in case history, T.8
England and Wales

sources of national law, T.2

English Reports—Full Reprint, T.2, T.2
Environmental Protection Agency, T.1
Epilogues, R15.6
Equal Employment Opportunity Act, R13.6
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, T.1
Essays in collection (see also Shorter works in collection)

citation of material in, R15.4
editor, R15.2
parallel citation to, R1.6(a)
“supra” short form, R15.9
typeface, R15.5

“Estate of,” in case names, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(b)
“Et al.”

authors’ names, B8.1, B8.2, R10.8.3, R15.1(b)
case names, omitted, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(a)
editors’ names, R15.2, R15.4(a), R15.8(c)

“Et seq.,” prohibition on use, R3.3(b)
Ethical considerations, R12.8.6
Ethics, codes of, R12.8.6
European Commission of Human Rights, R21.5.3
European Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b)R21.5.3T.3
European Court of Justice (see Court of Justice of the European Communities)
European Parliament Working Document, R21.8.2(b), T.3
European Parliamentary Assembly, R21.8.3
European Union materials, R21.5.2, R21.9, T.3.3
Evidence, rules of, B6.1.3, R12.8.3
“Ex rel.,” in case names, B5.1.1, R2.1(a), R2.2(a), R10.2.1(a), R10.2.1(b)
Executive Agreement Series (E.A.S.), R21.4.5(a), T.4
Executive Office of the President, T.1
Executive orders, 
Explanation of cited authorities, use of parentheticals, (see Explanatory Parentheticals)
Explanatory parentheticals

cases, B5.1.4-B5.1.5, R10.6
European Parliament debates, R21.8.2(b)
generally, B11, R1.2(a), R1.5, R2.2(b)
internet sources, R18.2.2(c)
order within citation, R1.5(b)
statutes, R12.7

Explanatory phrases

abbreviations used in case citation, T.8
amended statutes, R12.6
constitutions, amended or repealed, R11
italicization of, R10.7.1, T.8
repealed statutes, R12.6.2
typeface used in court documents and legal memoranda, B13
typeface used in law review citations, B13, R2.1
weight of authority, R10.6.1, R10.7.1
weight of authority in court documents and legal memoranda, B5.1.4

Expressions, mathematical, R7

Federal Appendix, R10.5(b), T.1
Federal Aviation Administration, T.1
Federal Cases, T.1
Federal courts (see also individual court name)

citation rules and style guides, BT2.1
courts of appeals, T.1
courts of decision, R10.4
district courts, T.1
generally, T.1
Supreme Court, official cite only, T.1

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, T.1
Federal government (see United States)
Federal Judicial Center

Manual for Complex LitigationR15.8(c)

Federal Labor Relations Authority,T.1
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission, T.1
Federal Practice and Procedure, B8.1, R15.1, R15.8(c)
Federal Register, B11, R12.7, R14.1, R14.2, R14.5.1, R14.6(b), R14.7, R14.10(c), T.1
Federal Regulations, Code of, R14.1, R14.2, R14.10(c), R18.1.3, R18.3, T.1
Federal Reporter, B.5.1.2, B5.1.3, T.1
Federal Reserve, T.1
Federal Rules Decisions,
Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, R12.8.3
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, B6.1.3, R12.8.3
Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, R12.8.3
Federal Rules of Evidence, B6.1.3, R3.4, R12.8.3
Federal Rules Service, T.1, T.15
Federal statutes (see Statutes, Statutes at Large)
Federal Supplement, B5.1.2, B5.1.3, R2.2(a), T.1
Federal taxation materials (see Tax materials)
The Federalist, R15.8(c), R15.9.1
Fifth Circuit Split, R10.8.2
"Figure," R3.2, T16
Films, R18.5, R18.7(d)
First editions, when cited, R15.4, R15.8(b)
First listed relator, not omitted in case names, R10.2.1
First names and initials

authors of books and pamphlets, R15.1, R15.9.1
authors of articles, R16.1, R16.7(b)
case names, R10.2.1(g)


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B6.1.2, BT.2, R12.2.1(b), R12.6.2, T.1

“Folio(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

abbreviation of, B5.1.2, R3.1(b), T.16
citation of, R3.1(b)
consecutive and nonconsecutive, R3.1(b)
cross-reference to, R3.5
material previously cited in, R4
multipage, R3.1(b)
multiple, R3.1(b)
numbers in, R6.2
omission from quotation, indication of, R5.1(a), R5.3(c)
spanning several pages, R3.1(b)
textual material, typeface used in, R2.2
typeface used for citations in, R2.1

“Footnote(s),” abbreviation of, B5.1.2, R3.1(b), T.16
“For the use of,” abbreviated to “ex rel.,” R10.2.1(b)
Foreign alphabets, R20.2.4, T.2.9, T.2.12, T.2.16, T.2.20, T.2.24, T.2.26, T.2.33, T.2.37,T.2.41
Foreign countries (see also name of individual country)

abbreviation of, T.10
International Court of Justice cases, R21.1(b), R21.5.1

Foreign derivation, italicization of words of, B13, R7(b)
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, R10.4(a)
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, R10.4(a)
Foreign language

abbreviation of words, R20.2.3
constitutions, R20.4
court name and location, give English version, R20.3.2
English versions and translations, R20.2, R21.2, R21.5.4
names, R10.2.1(g)
words italicized, B13, R7(b)

Foreign materials (see also name of individual country)

abbreviations, R20.2.3
alphabet, R20.2.4
cases, generally, R20.3
civil law, R20.3.2 
(see also name of individual country)
codes, statutory, R20.5
common law, R20.3.1 (see also name of individual country)
constitutions, R20.4
English used in naming courts, R20.3.2(a)
establishing abbreviations in initial citation, R20.2.3
international (see International agreements, International organization materials)
international agreements, R21.1(a), R21.4
jurisdiction, R20.1, R21.3
official treaty sources, T.4
periodicals, R20.6
short citation forms, R20.7
statutes, R20.5
treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4
treaty sources, T.4

Forewords, R3.2(a), R15.6, R16.1, R16.3
Formal opinions on professional responsibility, R12.8.6
Forthcoming publications, R17.2

sources of national law, T.2

Frequently cited authorities, short forms for, R4
“F.S.B.,” in case names, R10.2.1(h)

Gaius, Institutes of, T.2
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), R21.8.4
General Assembly, official records, U.N., R1.4(g), R21.1(d), R21.7.2(a), R21.7.8
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, R12.8.5
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards, R12.8.5
Geographical terms

abbreviations, T.10
case names, R10.2.1(f)


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B5.1.3, BT.2, R1.1(c), R12.3.1(b), R13.2(c), T.1


La¨nder (see La¨nder, Germany)
sources of national law, T.2

Given names

authors, R15.1
corporation, partnership, and business names, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h), R15.1(c)
individuals, R10.2.1(g)

Government Accountability Office, R13.4, T.2
Government agencies

annual and regular reports, R13.4(d), R14.2(c), R14.6(e)
authors, as, R13.4(b), R15.1(c)
books and numbered publications, R15.7
capitalization of, R8(b)
subdivisions,  R15.1(c)

Government Printing Office Style Manual, R8(b)
Government publications, U.S., R14.2, R14.5, R14.6-R14.8
Graphical materials, 61

sources of national law, T.2

Groups of authorities previously cited, reference to, R3.4-R4.2

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Hague Court Reports, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.5

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law,    BT.2, R3.1(c), T.1

Headings, capitalization in, R8(a)

congressional, B6.1.6, R1.5(a), R4.2, R13, R13.3
titles of, printed in italic type, B6.1.6, R1.5, R4.2, R13.1, R13.3
typeface used in court documents, B13

“Hereinafter,” used for shortened citation forms, B4, R4.2(b)
History of cases

both prior and subsequent, R10.7
dates of decisions, B5.1.3, R10.5
different case name on appeal, B5.1.5, R10.7.2
explanatory words, abbreviations, T.8
explanatory words italicized or underscored, B5.1.4, B13, R2.1(e), R2.2, R10.7.1, T.8
“mem.,” opinions designated as, R10.3.2, R10.6.1(b)
multiple decisions within single year, R10.5(d)
multiple dispositions, R10.2.1(k), R10.7.1(d)
ordering within signal unaffected by, R1.4(d)
overruled cases, R10.6.3, R10.7.1(c)
“per curiam,” opinions designated as, R10.6.1(b)
position of parentheticals, R1.5(b), R10.6.3
prior and subsequent, R10.1, R10.7
prior history indicated for memorandum decision, R10.6.1(b), R10.7
prior history, when given, R10.7
remand, when given, R10.7
separate decisions of other issues, when cited, R10.7
significance of disposition, R10.7
subsequent history, B5.1, B5.1.5, R1.6(b), R10.1, R10.7
subsequent history, appeal filed, docketed, R10.1, T.8
subsequent history, certiorari applied for, granted, denied, R10.1, R10.7, T.8
subsequent history, names of parties, when different on appeal, R10.7
subsequent history, reason for subsequent disposition, R10.7
typeface, B5.1.5, B13, R10.7, T.8
weight of authority, R10.6.1

History of statutes

amended statutes, R12.2.2(b), R12.6.3
parenthetically indicated, R12.7


alternative, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
concurring opinion, B5.1.4, R3.2(a), R5.2(e), R10.6.3, R10.9(b)
contrary to citations, R1.2(b)
dictum, R10.6.1(a)
dissenting opinion, B5.1.4, R3.2(a), R5.2(d), R10.2, R10.6.1(a), R10.6.3
implied, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
plurality opinion, R10.6.1(a)
unclear, indication of, R10.6.1(a)

Hong Kong

sources of law, T.2

House of Commons

debates and Journal, T.2

House of Lords

court, T.2
debates and Journal, T.2

House of Representatives (see Congressional materials)
Human Rights

European Commission of, R21.5.3, T.3
European Court of, R21.1(b), R21.5.3, T.3
Inter-American Commission on, R21.1(b), R21.5.3, T.3
Inter-American Court of, R21.5.4

Hungary, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

“Id.,” use of, 12–13, R4.1

cases, R10.9


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B5.1.3, BT.2, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B5.1.5, BT.2, R10.7, R12.4(a), T.1

Implied holdings, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
“In re,” in case names, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(b)
In rem jurisdiction, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(a), R10.2.1(d)
“In the matter of,” abbreviated to “In re,” B5.1.1, R10.2.1(b)
“In,” use of, R1.6(a), R15.5.1
“Inc.,” in case names, B5.3, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)
Inclusive numbers, R3.2-R3.3
Income tax materials (see Tax materials)

sources of national law, T.2


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, BT.2, R12.3.2, T.1

Indian Nations (see Navajo Nation and Oklahoma Native Americans)
Informal opinions on professional responsibility, R12.8.6
“Infra,” use of, R3.5

authors of books and pamphlets, R15.1
authors of periodicals, R16.1, R16.6.8
closing up of, R6.1(a)
commonly abbreviated names, R.6(b)
editors, R15.2
parties in case names, R10.2.1(g)
punctuation of, R.6(b)
translators, R15.2

Insertions in quotations, R5.1
Institutes of Gaius, T.2
Institutes of Justinian, T.2
Institutes, regular publications by, R16.6.7
Institutional authors, R15.1(c)
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
Intergovernmental organization materials (see also U.N. materials)

abbreviated names, T.3
arbitrations, R21.1(c), R21.6
basic citation forms, R21.1, R21.12
cases, R21.5
Common Market, R21.5.2(b), R21.8.2-R21.8.4, T.3
Council of Europe, R21.8.3
Court of Justice of the European Communities, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, T.3
courts, R21.1(b), R21.5.1
debates, European Parliamentary Assembly, R21.8.2(b), T.3
document number of League of Nations materials, R21.8.1, T.3
document number of U.N. materials, R21.1(d), R21.7
European Commission of Human Rights, R21.5.3, T.3
European Union, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, R21.8.2-R21.8.4, T.3
European Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b), R21.5.3, T.3
founding documents, U.N., R21.4
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, R21.8.4
generally, R21.7-R21.8, T.3
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
League of Nations, R21.8.1, T.3
League of Nations covenant, R21.8.1
League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.), T.3, T.4
number, League of Nations documents, R21.8.1
number, U.N. document, R21.1(d), R21.7.1
number, U.N. sales, R21.7.7
official records, U.N., R21.7
order of citation, R1.4(g)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
Reports of International Arbitral Awards, United Nations, T.5
sales number of U.N. materials, R21.7.7
sources, T.3
treaty sources, T.4
United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), T.3
yearbooks, international, R21.10
yearbooks, U.N., R21.7.9

Interim orders, R10.1
Internal Revenue Code

citation to other than current code, R12.8.1
court documents and legal memoranda, citations in, B6.1.5
generally, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
legislative history, R13.6
supplements, R12.8.1
unofficial codes, R12.8.1
year, R12.8.1

Internal Revenue Commissioner, in case names, R10.2.1(j)
“Internal Revenue,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(j)
Internal revenue regulations and rulings, B6.1.5, R14, R14.5.2
International agreements

American treaties, R21.1, R21.4
basic citation forms, R21.1(a), R21.4
bilateral, R21.1(a), R21.4.5(a)
citation, basic form of, R21.1(a), R21.4
citation order, R1.4(c)
compilations of agreements, T.4
components of citation, R21.4
country names, R21.4.2
date, R21.4.4
entry into force, R21.4.4
Executive Agreement Series (E.A.S.), T.4
foreign language, titles in, R20.2.2
foreign sources, (see name of jurisdiction)
intergovernmental organization materials, R1.4(g), R21.8-R21.9, R21.12(c), T.3
language of source, R20.2
League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.), T.3, T.4
multilateral, R21.1(a), R21.4.5(a)
name, R21.4.1
official sources, T.4
opening for signature, R21.4.4
order within signal, R1.4(c)
parallel citation, R21.4.5
parties to, R21.4.2
popular name, R21.4.1(b)
short citation forms, R21.12
sources, intergovernmental, T.4
sources, official, foreign, (see name of jurisdiction)
sources, official, U.S., T.4
sources, unofficial, T.4
State Department sources, R21.4.5(a)
Statutes at Large (Stat.), T.4
subdivisions, R21.4.3
subject matter, R21.4.1(a)
title, R21.4.1
Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.), R21.4.5(a), T.4
Treaty Series (T.S.), R21.4.5, T.4
United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), R21.4, T.3, T.4
United States
U.S. a party, R21.1(a), R21.4.1R21.4.5
U.S. not a party, R21.1(a), R21.4.5(b)
U.S. Treaties and Other International Agreements (U.S.T.), R21.4.3, T.4
year, R21.4.4

International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
International law

arbitrations, R21.1(c), R21.6
cases, R21.1(b), R21.5
Common Market, R21.1(b), R21.5.2(b), T.3
Council of Europe, R21.8.3
courts, R21.5
digests, R21.11
European Union, R21.1(e) , R21.5.2-R21.5.3, R21.8.2
generally, R21

intergovernmental organizations, R21.7-R21.8, T.3
international agreements, R21.4
League of Nations, R21.8.1
short citation forms, R21.12
treaties, R21.4
U.N., R21.7
yearbooks, international, R21.10
yearbooks, U.N., R21.7.9

International Law Reports, R21.5.8
International Legal Materials (I.L.M.), R21.4.5(c)
International materials

arbitrations, R21.6
basic citation forms, R21.1
cases, R21.5
Common Market, R21.1(b), R21.5.2(b), T.3
Council of Europe, R21.8.3
digests, R21.11
European Union, R21.1(e), R21.5.2, R21.8.2
generally, R21
international agreements, R21.4
jurisdiction, R21.3
League of Nations, R21.8.1
non-English language documents, R20.2, R21.2
periodicals, R20.6
short citation forms, R21.12
treaties, R21.4
treaty series, R21.4.3, T.4
U.N., R21.7
yearbooks, international, R21.10
yearbooks, U.N., R21.7.9

International organization materials

(see Intergovernmental organization materials)

Internet sources

archival, R18.2.3(f)
authentic or official, R18.1, 18.2.1
authors, Internet citations, R18.2.2
basic citation principles, R18.2-R18.2.1
blogs, R18.2.4
cases, R18.2.3(b)
date, R18.2.2(b), R18.2.3(e)
document format, R18.2.1(c)
e-mail, R18.2.4
explanatory parentheticals, R18.2.1-R18.2.2, R18.2.4
generally, R18.2
online postings, R18.2.4
order of authorities, R18.2.2(c)
pagination R18.2.2(b)
parenthetical information, R18.2.2(c), R18.2.4
PDF files, R18.2.1(c)
periodicals, R18.2
pinpoint citation, R18.2.3(d)
preservation of information, R18.2.3(e)
official or authenticated, R18.1(a), R18.2.1
short forms, R18.7(c)
statues, R12.2.1(b), R12.5, R12.10(c), R18.3 
title, Internet citations, R18.2.3(c)
typeface, direct Internet citations, R18.2.3(b)
URL, R18.2.1(a)

Interviews, citation of, R17.1.4
Introductions, citation of, R15.6
Introductory signals (see Signals)
Invalidated statutes, R12.6.1
“Invalidated by”

in statute citation, R12.6.1

Invalidation, citation of, R12.6.1

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

“I.R.C.” replacing “26 U.S.C.,” B6.1.5, R12.8.1, T.1
Iran, Islamic Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

Iraq, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

Ireland, Northern, T.2, T.2

Ireland, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2


sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2

Italicization (see also Typeface)

in court documents, B2
emphasis, R7(a)
equations, R7(e)
foreign words, R7(b)
hypothetical parties, R7(c)
mathematical expressions, 
stylistic purposes, R7(a)

Italy, Republic of

sources of national law, 285–86
treaty source, 285–86


sources of national law, T.2

Joining citations

order of citations, R1.4
punctuation, R1.1

Joint resolutions, R13.2

European Communities, Official, R21.5.1
federal legislative, R13.4(d)
House of Commons, T.2
House of Lords, T.2

“Journal,” abbreviation of, T.13


indication of, in citation, R9(a), R10.2.1(k), T.11
used as title, R9(a), T.11

“Judge,” capitalization of, R8(b)
“Judge(s),” abbreviation of, R9(a), T.11
Judges and Justices

order of listing, R9(b)
titles, use of, R9(a)

“Judgment of,” use in citation, R10.2.1
Judgements of the U.N. Administrative Tribunal, R21.7.5
Judicial history of cases (see History of cases)
Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, R1.4(d), R10.4(a), T.1
Jump cites (see Pinpoint citations)
Jurisdiction, indication of

American cases, R10.4
American statutes, R12.3.1, R12.4
foreign materials, R20-1
international materials, R21.3
municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
session laws, R12.4


indication of, in citation, R8(b), R10.2.1(k), T.11

“Justice,” capitalization of, R8(b)
“Justice(s),” abbreviation of, R8(b), T.11
Justinian, Institutes, Digest, and Code of, T.2

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1


sources of national law, T.2

“L” italicized as letter in subdivision, R7(d)
Labor unions, in case names, R10.2.1(i)
Länder, Austria T.2
Länder, Germany T.2
Large and small capitals (see Typeface)
Latin words

case names, italicizaction in, R2.1(a)R10.2.1(a)
citation forms, italicization in, R7(b)
italicization of, R7(b)
procedural phrases in case names, R7(b)
short citation forms, italicization in, R4

Law Journal Reports, T.2
Law journals and reviews

abbreviations, English-language, T.13
abbreviations, spacing of, R6.1(a)
authors’ names, B9, R16.1
basic citation forms, B9, R16
book reviews, R16.6.2(c)
citation analyzed, R16
citation order, R1.4(i)
colloquia, R16.6.3
commentaries and special article designations, R16.6.4
commentary cited with case, R1.6
comments, B9R16.6.2
components of citation, B9.1, R16
consecutively paginated, R16.3
electronic databases, R16.8, R18.3, R18.8(b)
foreign, R20.6
generally, B9, R16, R16.6
multipart articles, R16.6.5
new series (n.s.), T.14
nonconsecutively paginated, B9.1.2, R16.4
notes, B9.1.3, R16.6.2
order within signal, R1.4(i)
projects, R16.6.2(b)
short citation forms, R16.7
short commentary, R16.6.2(b)
student material, B9.1.3, R16.6.2
special issues, R16.3
surveys, R16.6.3
symposium, R16.6.3
typeface in court documents and legal memoranda, B13
typeface in law review citations, R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.2

Law Times Reports, T.2
Lawyer’s Reports Annotated (L.R.A.), annotations in, R16.6.6
Leaflets, R15.8(c)
League of Nations materials (see Intergovernmental organization materials)
League of Nations Treaty Series (L.N.T.S.), T.3, T.4
Lebanon, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

Legal dictionaries, R15.8(a)
Legal encyclopedias, R15.8(a)
Legal newspapers (see Newspapers)
Legal services, looseleaf (see Services and topical reporters)
Legislation (see Codes, Session laws, Statutes)
Legislative histories, R13.2-R13.7
Legislative materials, B6.1.6, R13

basic citation forms, R13.1
bills and resolutions, R13.2
citation order, R1.4(i)
committee prints, R13.4
components of citation, R13.1
Congressional Research Service reports, R13.4(d)
debates, R13.5
documents, R13.4
English, T.2
Government Accountability Office reports, R13.4.(d)
hearings, B6.1.6, B13, R1.4(e), R4.2, R8(b), R13.1, R13.3, R13.7(c), T.2
Internet sources, R18.1.3
legislative histories, R13.2-R13.7
online sources, R13.7
order within signal, R1.4(b)
parallel citations, R13.2(a), R13.2(b), R13.4(a), R13.6
presidential messages, R14.7(b)
reports, R13.4
secondary authorities, R13.6
short forms, R13.7
state, R13.1, R13.2-R13.3
typeface used in court documents and legal memoranda, B13
United Kingdom, T.2
unnumbered documents, R13.4(b)

Letters and memoranda, R14.1, R14.6(a), R15.5, R15.9.1, R16.5, R17.1.3, R18.2.2(b), R18.2.3
Letters of the alphabet, altered in quotations, R5.2
LEXIS, B5.1.3, B6.1.1, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R10.9(a), R12.3.1(b), R12.3.1(d), R18.1, R18.7(a) , R21.5.2(a)
Local court rules, B1, B2, B5.1.3, BT.2, R10.3.1(a), T.1
Location, phrases of

letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
omitted from case names, R10.2.1(f)
unpublished works, R17.1, R10.9(a)
Long case names, R10.2.1

"hereinafter" form, when used, R4.2(b)

Looseleaf services (see Services and topical reporters)
Looseleaf statutory codifications, R12.3.2
“Lord Justice,” abbreviation of, T.11

citation rules and style guides,BT.2
sources of law, R4.1, R10.3, R10.9, R11, R12.4(c)T.1

“Ltd.,” in case names, B5.1.1, B5.3, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)

citation analyzed, R16
citation order, R1.4(i)
consecutively paginated, R16.3
generally, R16-R16.4
Internet sources, R18.2
nonconsecutively paginated, R16.4
“Magistrate,” abbreviation of, T.11
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R10.2.1,R10.9.(iii)
Mandamus actions, R10.2.1(k)
Manual for Complex Litigation, R15.8(b)
published as part of a collection,
unpublished, R17.1.1
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B10.1.3, B13, R13.3,
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B10.1.3, R6.1, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R10.4(b), R12.3.1(g)
, R12.3.1(g), T.1
“Master of the Rolls,” abbreviation of, T.11
Materially different language in code and statute, R12.2.2(c)
Mathematical equations, R7(e)
Matthew Bender services (MB), T.15
(see also Services and topical reporters)
“Mediator,” abbreviation of,
Medium neutral citation (see Public domain citation)
Memorand[um, a],
B9-B13, R17.1.3, R21.7.4
Memorandum decision
indication of,
prior history must be given, R10.7.1(a)
Merit Systems Protection Board, T.1
sources of national law,
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B10.1.3, R10.4(b), R10.8.1, R14.2(c)
Microfiche (see Microform)
R18.4, R18.7(b)
Military courts, T.1
Military Justice Reporter,
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law,
BT.2, R10.2.1(a), R10.3.1(b), R12.1, T.1
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R10.3.3
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R1.1(c)
Mistakes in quotations, indicated by “[sic],” R5.2(c)
Model Code of Professional Responsibility, R12.8.6
Model codes, R12.8.5
Model Penal Code, R12.8.5
Model Rules of Professional Conduct, R12.8.6
“Modified” and “modifying,in case
R10.2.1(k), T.8
(see also Explanatory phrases)
Monarchs, English,
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R1.1(c), R3.3(b)
Month used to indicate volume, R19.1(d)
Months, abbreviation of, T.12
Moore’s Federal Practice, R3.3, R15.3
Motions, B10-B13
Multinational materials (see International materials)
Multipart articles,
Multiple authors, B8.1, R15.1(b)
Multiple decisions within a single year, R10.5(d)
Multiple dispositions of a case, R10.2.1(k)
Multiple editions and printings of book, R15.4
Multiple pages, footnotes, and endnotes,
Multiple parties, words indicating, omitted in case names, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(a)
Municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
Music (see Audio recordings)

“N.A.,” in case names, R10.2.1(h)
Name of state, when omitted in case name, R10.2.1(f)

authors, articles, R16
authors, books and pamphlets, R15-R15.1
book reviews, R16, R16.6.2
bound services, abbreviated, T.15
commonly abbreviated, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(c), R10.2.2, T9-T10
editions of books and pamphlets, R15.4-R15.7
editors, R15.2-R15.5
looseleaf services, abbreviated, T.15
newspaper sections, R16.5(a)
newspapers, abbreviated, T13
parties, when different on appeal, R10.7.2
periodicals, abbreviated, English language, T13
periodicals, abbreviation and typeface, R16
prepositions in periodical names, T13
rules and regulations, R14.2
services, R19
services, abbreviated, T.15
session laws, B6.1.1, R12.4
state, when omitted, R10.2.1(f)
statutes, R12.2.2-R12.3.2
translators, R15.2
treaties, R21.4-R21.4.1

Names of cases (see Case names)
National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Law, R12.8.5
National Labor Relations Act, R13.6
National Labor Relations Board, T.1
National Mediation Board, T.1
National Oceanic and Atmosphereic Administration, T.1
National Reporter System (see Unofficial reporters)
National Transportation Safety Board, T.1
Navajo Nation

sources of law, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R10.2.1, R13.3.2T.1

Netherlands, Kingdom of the

sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R1.1, R12.3.1, R12.5 , T.1

New Brunswick

sources of law, T.2

New Hampshire

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

New Jersey

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R13.8, T.1

New Mexico

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R2.1(a), R3.3(a), R10.3.3, T.1

New series (n.s.) of periodical, T.13
New York

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, B5.3, R10.2.1(f), R10.7.1(a), BT.2, T.1

New Zealand

sources of national law, T.2, T.2
treaty source, T.2


sources of law, T.2

Newsletters, R16.6.8

abbreviated names, T.13
articles, R16.5(a), R20.6
authors, R16.5(a)
bylines of articles, R16.5(a)
cases cited to, R10.1, R10.3.2
citation analyzed, R16
citation of, R16, R16.5(a)
citation order, R1.4(i)
columns, not indicated, R16.5(a)
consecutively paginated, R16.3-R16.5
dates, R16.3-R16.5
editions, R16.5
editorials, R16.5(a)
electronic databases, R16.5(d), R18.1.4
foreign, R20.6
generally, R16.5(a)
letters to the editor, R16.5(a)
online, R16.6(e)
op-ed. articles, R16.5(a)
pages, R16
pinpoint citations, R16.5(a)
sections, R16.5(a)
statutes cited to, R12, R12.2.1, R12.5
titles of articles, R16.5(a)
titles of, printed in italic type, R2.1(c), R2.2(a)
typeface, B9.1.1, B13, R2.1(c), R2.2(a), R16, R16.5(a)
typeface in court documents and legal memoranda, B13
typeface in law reviews, R2.1
when cited, R10.3.1(b), R12.1


sources of national law, T.2


sources of national law, T.2

“No.,” in case names, R10.2.1(c)
“[No signal]” as signal, R1.2(a)
No-action letters, SEC, R14.1, R14.6(a)
Nonconsecutive pages, citation of, R3.2(a)
Nonconsecutive sections, citation of, R3.3(b)
Nonperiodic materials (see Books and pamphlets)
North Carolina

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R12.3, T.1

North Dakota

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Northern Ireland

sources of law, T.2, 327–29

Northern Mariana Islands

citation rules and style guides, BT.2.3
sources of law, BT.2, T.1

Northwest Territories

sources of law, T.2

“Note,” designating student work, B9.1.3, R2.1(d), R3.2(a), R16.6.2, R17.1.1, R17.3
“Noted in,” use of, R1.6(c)
Notes (see also Footnotes)

appended material, R3.4
statutory notes, R12.3.1(h)
student-written, R16.6.2

Nouns, capitalization of, R8(b)
Nova Scotia

sources of law, T.2

Novels (Roman Law), T.2
Number and series

European Community materials, R21.8.2
League of Nations materials, R21.8.1
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
U.N. materials, R21.1(d), R21.7

Number of case

administrative cases, R14.3.2(b)
appeal or petition for certiorari, R10.1, R10.8.3
court documents, R10.8.3
federal cases, T.1, T.1
medium neutral citation, R10.3.1(b), T.2, T.2, T.2, T.2
pending cases B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.5(c), R10.8.1
public domain citation, R10.3.3
renumbered, R10.8.1(b)
service citations, R19.1
unreported cases, B5.1.3, R10.4, R10.8.1


Arabic numerals designating monarchs, T.2
Arabic numerals designating volumes, R3.1(a), R3.2(a)
beginning sentence, R6.2(a)
Circuit number, capitalization, R8(b)
commas in, R6.2(a)
Congress and session, R13.2-R13.7
designating subdivision, numerals used, R6.2(a)
docket (see Number of case)
dollar amounts, numerals used, R6.2(a)
English monarchs, T.2
ethical opinion, R12.8.6
five or more digits, R6.2(a)
generally, R6.2(a)
inclusive pages, R3.2(a)
inclusive paragraphs, R3.3(c)
inclusive sections of codes, R3.3(b)
legislature, R13.2-R13.7
ordinal, R6.2(b)
ordinance, R12.8.2
patent number, R14.9
percentages, numerals used, R6.2(a)
round numbers spelled out, R6.2(a)
Roman numerals, R3.2(a), T.2
serial, of books and pamphlets, R15.7
serial, of publications, R15.
series, consistency in, R6.2(a)
spacing of, in abbreviations, R6.1(a)
volumes designated by Arabic numerals, R3.1(a)

“Number(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

Occupational Safety and Health Act, R12.3.1(a), R13.6
“Of America,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
Office of Legal Counsel, opinions, R14.4
Official and West reporters

generally, B5.1.2, R10.3
U.S. Supreme Court, T.1

Official codes

American, R12.3
foreign, R20.6 (see also name of jurisdiction)
online, R12.1, R12.5

Official Journal of the European Communities, R21.8.2(a), T.3
Official Journal of the EuropeanUnions, R21.8.2(a)T.3
Official names of statutes, R12.3.1(a)
Official or authenticated online documents, R18.1(a), R18.12.1

Official public domain citation, R10.3.3
Official records (see Records)
Official records, U.N., R21.7
Official releases of administrative agencies, R14.3.2
Official reporters (see also name of individual jurisdiction)

abbreviations used, T.1
administrative cases, R14.3.2(a), T.1
foreign cases, T.2
state cases, B5.1.2, R10.3.1(a), R10.4, T.1
U.S. Supreme Court cases, T.1
when to cite, B5.1.2, R10.3.1

Official sources

international agreements, T.4
international arbitrations, T.5
public domain citation, R10.3.1
statutes, foreign, T.2
treaties, T.4

Offprints (see Photoduplicated reprints)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, R12.3.2, T.1

Oklahoma Native Americans

sources of law, T.1


book and pamphlet titles, R15.4(a)
case names, R10.2.1
quotations, R5.3

“On the relation of,” abbreviated to “ex rel.,” R10.2.1(a)

“Opened for signature,” use of, R21.4.4

administrative, R14.4
concurring and dissenting, R3.2(a), R10.6.1(a)
ethics, R12.8.6
formal advisory, R14.1, R14.4
seriatim, R10.6.1(c)

Opinions of Attorney General, R14.1, R14.4
Opposing citations, introductory signals to, R1.2(c)
Order of citation, R1.1, R1.4
Order of parentheticals, R10.6.3

parallel Internet citations, R18.2.2(c)

Orders, regulations, and rulings of administrative agencies, R14.1-R14.6
Ordinal numbers, R6.2(b)
Ordinances, municipal and county, R12.8.2

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Original edition of books, citation to star pages, R15.8(b)
Original source

identified after a quotation, R1.6(a)

“Overruled by,” in case history, R10.7, T.8


administrative compilations, R14.2
annotations, R16.6.6
“at,” used in citations to particular pages, B5.2, B10.1, R3.2(a), R3.3, R15.3, R16.4, R18.2.3(a), R19.2(a), R21.5.3, R21.7.7(b)
books and pamphlets, R3.2(a), R15
bound services, R10.3.2, R19.2
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.2, R14.7(a)
collected works, R15.5.2
Common Market cases, R21.5.2
consecutive and nonconsecutive, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
Federal Register, R14.2, R14.5-R14.7
first page of authority, citation to, R3.2(a)
generally, R3.2
graphical materials, R3.2(d)
inclusive, R3.2(a)
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
law journals and reviews, R16-R16.4
legislative reports and documents, R13.4
looseleaf services, R12.1, R19.1(d), R21.5.2(b)
multipart articles, R16.6.5
multiple, citation of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
newspapers, R16.5
online sources, R18.1, R18.2.3(c)
particular, reference to, R3.2, R3.5
“passim,” use of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
periodicals, R16-R16.5
Permanent Court of International Justice cases, R21.5.1
reporters, R10.3.2
reprinted reporters with different pagination, R10.3.2
services, R19
session laws, R12.4
shorter works in collection, R15.5
slip opinions, R10.8.1(b)
star, in books and pamphlets, R15.8(b)
statutes, R12.3
statutes, secondary sources, R12.5
U.N. materials, R21.7
unpublished opinion, R10.8.1
World Court cases, R21.5.1

“Page(s),” abbreviation of, R3.2(a), R3.5, T.16
Pakistan, Islamic Republic of
sources of national law T2

Pamphlets (see Books and pamphlets)
Panama (see Canal Zone)
Paragraph number, in services, R3.3(c), R19.1(c)
Paragraphed reporters (see Services and topical reporters)

ABA section reports, R16.6.7
ALI proceedings, R16.6.7
books and pamphlets, R3.3, B15
citations to, R3.3, R6.2(c)
consecutive and nonconsecutive, R3.3(c)
indented but unnumbered, R3.3
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
international agreements, R21.4.5
multiple, R3.3(c)
omission of, in quotations, R5.1(a)
proceedings, R16.6.7
public domain citations, R10.3.1(b)
services, R19.1
treaties, R21.4.5
U.N. materials, R21.7
unnumbered, citation of, R3.3

“Paragraph(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3, R6.2(c), T.16
Parallel citations

articles and collected essays, R1.6
briefs and court filings, R10.8.3
cases, administrative, R14.3
cases, American, R10.3
cases, federal, R10.3.2, T.1
cases, in id. form, B5.2, R10.9(b)
cases, international, R21.5.8
cases, reprinted reporters, R10.3.2
cases, state, R10.3.1-a
European Community materials, R21.5.2
international agreements, R21.4.5
medium neutral citation, R10.8.3
order of citations, parallel and official, R10.3.1
public domain citation, R10.3.3
repeating citations, R10.3.1
services, R10.3.1, R19.1
statutes, American, R12.5
statutes, foreign (see name of individual country)
Treasury regulations, R14.5.1
treaties, R21.4.5
treaty collections, R21.4.5

Parenthetical explanations of authorities, (see Explanatory Parentheticals)
Parenthetical indications

administrative adjudications, R14.3.1
alterations in quotations, R5.2
alternative holding, R12.1
amended statutes, R12.6
arbitration, international, R21.6
arbitrator, R14.3.1(b)
author of opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
broadcasts, R18.5
Bible version, R15.8(c)
"by implication", R10.6.1(a)
“citing,” R10.6.2
codification of session laws, R12.4(e)
commentary, R1.5
common names of cases, R10.2.1(k)
concurring opinions, R10.6.1(a)
court of decision, R10.4, R4.1
dates of cases, R10.5
depublished status, R10.8.1(d)
dictum, R10.6.1(a)
dissenting opinions, R10.6.1(a)
divided court, R10.6.1(a)
docket numbers, R10.1, R10.8.1(b)
editors of books, R15.2
editors of reports, R10.3.2
date of statute, R12.3.2, R12.4(d)
en banc decisions, R10.6.1(a)
ethical opinions, R12.8.6
explanatory phrases, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
films, R18.5
forthcoming publications, R17.2
id. identifying different opinions, R10.9(b)
identifier of cases, R10.8.3
implied holding, R10.6.1(a)
International Court of Justice, R21.5.1
judge writing opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
jurisdiction, American cases, R10.4
jurisdiction, international materials, R20.1, R21.3
Justice writing opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
letters, R17.1.3
location of email correspondence and listserv postings, R10.6.2
location of letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
location of unpublished works, R17.1
mandamus, judge target of, R10.2.1(k)
memorandum decisions, R10.6.1(b)
microform, R18.4
model codes, R12.8.5
multipart articles, R16.6.5
new series (n.s.), T.13
number and series of books and pamphlets, R15.7
order, R1.5, R10.6.3
order of, in parallel Internet citations, R18.2.2(c)
per curiam decision, R10.6.1(b)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
primary authority commentary, R3.4
plurality opinions, R10.6.1(a)
popular name of statute, R12.3.1(a), R12.4(a)
prior history of statute, R12.6.4
proposed amended drafts of statutes, R12.8.5
“quoting,” R10.6.2
quoting an authority, R1.5(a)
repealed statutes, R12.2.1(b), R12.6.2, R12.8.3
restatements, R12.8.5
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
separate opinions, R10.6.1(a), R21.5.1
serial number, books and pamphlets, R15.7
series and number in series publications, R15.7
services, later bound form, R19.1
session laws, R12.2.1(c), R12.4, R12.7
split decisions, R10.6.1(a)
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.7
statutes, amended, R12.6.3
statutes, history of, R12.6
statutes, prior history, R12.6.4
statutes, repealed, R12.6.2
tentative draft of statute, R12.8.5
translators of books, R15.2(a), R15.4(a), R15.5.1(a), T.2
"translating," R.2.2
unclear holdings, R10.6.1(a)
weight of authority, R10.6.1
when nested, R10.6.3
year, English statutes, T.2

Parlement Européen Documents de Séance, R21.8.2(b)T.3
Parliamentary materials, British, T.2

appeal, under different names, R10.7.2
citation in case names, R10.2
hypothetical, R7(c)
international agreements, R21.1(a), R21.4
international arbitrations, R21.1(c), R21.6
International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1
omitted in case names, R10.2.1(a)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1
treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4

Partnership names in cases, R10.2.1(a)
“Part(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
“Passim,” use of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
Patents, R14.9
PDF files, B18.1.1, R18.1, R18.2.1(c), R18.2.2(F)
Pending cases, R10.1, R10.5(c)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
early federal and state cases, R10.3.2
sources of law, T.1

“People of,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
“Per curiam”

in case history, R4.1, R10.6.1(b)
parenthetical indication of, B5.1, B5.1.4, R1.3, R2.1(f), R10.3.1(b), R10.6.1(a), R10.7.2(b)

Percentages, numerals used, R6.2(a)

ABA section reports, R16.6.7
abbreviations, English-language, T.13
abstracts in, R16.6.2(a)
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
annotations, R16.6.6
articles, R16
authors, R16.1
basic citation forms, 
book notes, R16.2, R16.6.2(c), R16.7(a)
book reviews, R16.6.1-R16.6.2, R16.7(a)
case comments, R16.6.2(b)
case notes, R16.6.2(a)
cases, when cited to, R10.3.1(b)
citation order, R1.4(i)
colloquia, R16.6.3
comments, law review, R16.6.2
components of citation, B9, R16
consecutively paginated, R16.5(c)
date, R16
electronic databases, R16.6(e)
foreign, R20.6
forthcoming materials, R17.2
“Developments in the Law,” R16.6.2(b)
generally, R16
institutes, regular publications by, R16.6.7
Internet journals, R18.2.3
multipart articles, R16.6.5
names, abbreviation of, R20.2.3, R20.6(b), T.13
names, typeface used, R16.1
new series (n.s.), T.14
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, R16.5
noncommercial, R16.6.8
nonconsecutively paginated, R16.4
notes, law review, R16.6.2
online, R16.6(e),R18.1
order within signal, R1.4(i)
page citation, R3.2
pages, R16.3-R16.4
pinpoint citations, R16.4
proceedings, R16.6.7
punctuation in titles, when omitted, T.13
recent cases, R16.6.2
recent developments, R16.6.2
recent statutes, R16.6.2
short citation forms, R16.6.2
special projects, law review, R16.6.2
statutes cited to, R12.1, R12.5(b)
student-written material, R16.6.2
Supreme Court note, R16.6.2(b)
surveys of law, R16.6.2(b)
symposia, R16.6.3
titles, R16.2
typeface, in court documents, B13
typeface, in law reviews, R2
undated, R16.6
volume, R3.1
year, R16.3

Periods, to indicate omissions in quotations, R5.3
Permanent Court of Arbitration, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.3
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1

sources of national law, T.2

Photoduplicated reprints, R15.4(b)
Phrases of location

letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1
omitted from case names, R10.2.1(f)
unpublished works, R17.1

Pike & Fischer (P & F) services, T.15

(see also Services and topical reporters)

Pinpoint citations

books, other nonperiodic materials, B8
court and litigation documents, B10.3, R10.8.3
European Union/Community materials, R21.8.2
Federal Register, R14.2(a)
forthcoming publications, R17.2
generally, B5.1.2, R3.2-R3.5
id., B5.2
intergovernmental organization materials, other, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1(d)
Internet sources, R18.2.3(d)
manuscripts, R17.1.1
medium-neutral citation, R10.3.3
multipart articles, R16.6.5
newspapers, R16.5
parallel citations, in B5.1.3
pending, unreported cases, B5.1.3, R10.8.1, R10.9(c), R18.1.1
periodicals, B9, R16.3-R16.5
public domain citation, R10.3.3
session laws, B6.1.1, R12.4
short form citations, in B5.2, B8.2, R10.9(a)
speeches, R17.1.5
statutes, R12.3-R12.4
treaties, R21.4.3
U.N. materials, R21.7


generally, B10, R10.8.3
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1(f)T.3
League of Nations, T.3

Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents, R21.5.1(f), T.3
Plenary materials, U.N., R21.7.1-R21.7.3
Plurality opinion, indication of, R10.5(d)

of abbreviations, R3.1(d), T.6
symbols representing, B6.1.1, R3.2(b), R3.3(b)

Pocket parts (see also entries under Supplements)

books and pamphlets, R15.4(d)
codes, R3.1(c) , R12.3.1(e)

Podcasts, R18.1(b), R18.7.3
Popular names

cases, R10.2.1, R10.2.1(d)
international agreements, R21.4.1(b)
session laws, R12.4(a)
statutes, B6.1.1, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.1(b)

Positive law, codes enacted into, R12.2.2(c)
Pre-1900 works, R15.4(c)
Preamble, constitutional, R11
Prefaces, R15.6

capitalization, R8(a)
in case names, R10.2.1(f), R10.2.1(i)
in court document titles, BT.1
in legislative document titles, T.9
in periodical names, T.13

Presidential papers and executive orders, R1.4(f), R14.7
Press releases,

European Union, R21.8.2(f)
generally, R17.1.3
short form for, R17.4
United Nations, R21.7.4
World Trade Organization, R21.8.4(d)

Previously cited authorities

(see also entry under authority cited; Short citations forms)
cross-reference to, R4.1

Prince Edward Island

sources of law, T.2, T.10

Printing, when indicated, R15.4
Prior history (see History of cases, History of statutes)
Private laws, R12.2.1(c)
Private letter rulings, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5.2(b)
Privy Council,

Australian cases, T.2
Canadian cases, T.2
Hong Kong cases, T.2
Indian cases, T.2
Kenyan cases, T.2
New Zealand cases, T.2
Nigerian cases, T.2
South African cases, T.2
United Kingdom, T.2, T.2

“Probable jurisdiction noted,” in case history, T.8

Procedural phrases,

in administrative adjudications, R14.3.1(a)
in case names, B5.1.1, B13, R2.1(a), R2.2(a), R7(b), R10.2.1(b)
in international cases, R21.1(b)
in short form citations, R10.9(a)
in subsequent history of cases, R10.7.2(a)

Procedure, rules of, B6.1.3, R1.4(b), R12.8.3

audio recordings of court, R10.8.3
institutional, R16.7.7
United Nations, R21.7.7

Professional Responsibility, Code of, R12.8.6
Projects, in law reviews, R16.6.2
Proposed administrative rules and regulations, R1.4(f), R14.2(b)
Proposed drafts, restatements and model codes, R12.8.5
Provinces, Canadian, T.2, T.10
Public domain citation, R10.3
Public International Law Cases, Annual Digest and Reports of, R21.5.7
Public law number, when given for federal statutes, B6.1.1, R12.1, R12.2.2, R12.4, T.1
Public Papers of the Presidents, R14.7(b)
Publication number

administrative opinions, R14.3.2(b)
Europeans Union/Community materials, R21.8.2
intergovernmental organizations’ materials, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice rules and acts, R21.5.1(g)
League of Nations publications, R21.8.1, T.3
series publications, R14.2(d), R15.7
U.N. publications, R21.7
WTO materials, R21.8.4

Publication, place of,

books, pre–1900, R15.4(c)
newspapers, R16.5(b)


ABA section reports, R16.6.7
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
considered periodicals or reporters, R10.3.2
forthcoming, R17.1, R17.2
institutes, regular publications, R16.6.7
proceedings, R16.6.7
typeface in court documents and legal memoranda, B9
typeface in law review citations, R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.1
typeface used for names, R2.1


books, R15.4(a)
CD-ROM, R18.3
codes, R12.3.1(d)
foreign codes, R20.5.2
microform collections, R18.4.2
services, R19.1(b)
session laws, R12.4
statutes, R12.3.1(d)

Puerto Rico

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, BT.2, T.1


between case and commentary, R1.6(d)
between statute and case construing it, R1.6(b)
citations, separated by semicolons, B4.5, R1.1
initials, R6.1(a)
italicization of, R2.2(c)
periodical titles, T.13
quotations, R5
subdivisions, R3.3
subsequent history of cases, R10.7.1
with introductory signals, R1.2

Quasi-statutory material, R13-R14.2, R14.5
Queen’s Bench, T.2, T.2T.2

“Questioned in,” use of, R1.6(c)
Quotation marks, R5

alteration of, R5.2
generally, R5
identification of original source, R5.2
long and short, R5.1
mistakes in, indicated by “[sic],” R5.2(c)
omissions in, R5.3

“Quoted in,” use of, R1.6(c)
“Quoting,” use of, R1.6(c)

in case parentheticals, R10.6.2

Radio broadcasts, R18.5
Recent cases, citation of, R10.1, R10.3.1(b)R10.8.1
Recent cases, in law reviews, R16.6.2(a)
Recent decisions, in law reviews, R16.6.2(a)
Recent developments, in law reviews, R16.6.2(a)
Recent statutes, R12.2R12.3.2
Recent statutes, in law reviews, R16.6.2(a)
Recordings, audio, R18.6

cases, B10, R10.8.3
U.N., R21.7.1

“Referee,” abbreviation of, T.11
References to previously cited authorities, R4
Regional Rail Reorganization Court, T.1
Regional reporters, B5.1.3, R10.3
Regnal years, in English statutes, T.2, T.2T.2
Regulations of administrative agencies

generally, B6.1.4, R14.1-R14.2
Internal Revenue, B6.1.5, R12.8.1, R14.1, R14.5
short citation forms, R14.10
Treasury, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5


denial, when indicated, R10.7R10.7.2
“sub nom.” not used, R10.7.2

“Rehearing granted [denied],” in case history, T.8
Related authority, R1.6
“Relation of,” abbreviated to “ex rel.,” B5.1.1R10.2.1(a)
Relator, first listed, not omitted, R10.2.1
Releases, SEC, R14.1R14.6
Remand, history of case on, R10.7
Renumbered and reprinted reports, R10.3.2
Reorganization plans, R14.6R14.7(a)

books and pamphlets, R15.4
case reporters, R10.3.2

“Repealed by”

in constitution citation, R11
in statute citation, R12.6.2

Repealed constitutions, R11
Repealed statutes, R12.6.2
Repeating citations, R4
Report of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders, R21.5.1(c)T.3
Reporter editor, when given, R10.3.2
Reporters of cases

    (see also Services and topical reporters)
abbreviations, R10.3.2
administrative, R14.3.2, T.1
American, T.1
annotations of cases, R16.6.6
Common Market cases, R21.5.2(b)T.3
computer services, R10.9(a)R18.7
court administrative orders, R14.8, T.1
dual citations, B5.1.3, R10.3.1, R10.3.3R10.9(b)
early American, R10.3.2
editor named, R10.3.2
electronic databases, R10.9(a), R18.7(a)
federal, T.1
foreign, R20.3, T.2
generally, B5.1.2, R10.1, R10.3
international arbitrations, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.5
jurisdiction named, R10.4
medium-neutral citation, R10.3.1(b), R10.3.3
official and West, when cited, B5.1.3, R10.3.1(b)
page citation, R10.3.2
parallel citation, B5.1.3, R10.3.1, R10.3.3R10.9(b)
public domain citation, R10.3.3
publications considered as, R10.3.2
renumbered and reprinted, R10.3.2
requiring dual citation, B5.1.3, R10.3.1, R10.3.3R10.9(b)
services, permanently bound, R19
state, B5.1.3, R10.3.1(a), R10.3.2
unofficial, when cited, B5.1.3, R10.3.1, R10.3.3
volume citation, R10.3.2
International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1


    (see also Reporters of cases)
administrative and executive, R14.3.1
Congressional Research Service, R13.4(d)
Government Accountability Office, 
legislative, R13, R13.4

“Representative,” abbreviation ofT.11
Reprinted case reporters, R10.3.2
“Reprinted in,” use of, BT.2, R1.6(a), R3.4, R12.3.1(g), R13.4(a), R13.6, R15.5.2(a), R18.1.3R21.7.9
“Reprinted in,” with multiple sources, R13.1R14.7(a)  
Reprints, photoduplicated, R15.4(b)  
Research Institute of America (RIA)

services, T.15
(see also Services and topical reporters)


congressional, R13.1, R13.2
European Union, R21.8.2(b)
intergovernmental organizations, R21.7.10R21.8.5
state, B6.1.6, R13.1
statutory, R13.2
U.N. organs, R21.1(d), R21.7.2

Restatements, B6.1.3, R3.4, R12.8.5

comments, B6.1.3, R3.4, R12.8.5

Revenue Acts, B6.1.5R12.8.1
Revenue Rulings, R14.1, R14.5.2(a)
Revenue Procedures, R14.5.2(a)
Reversals, in subsequent case history, R10.7
“Reversed,” in case history, B5.1.5, R10.7.1(a)T.8
Reversed names of parties, citation of on appeal, R10.7.2
“Reversing,” in case history, T.8
Review, cited with book reviewed, R1.6(c), R16.6.2
“Reviewed by,” use of, R1.6(c)
Reviewer of book, R16.6.2
“Reviewing,” use of in book review citation, R1.6(c), R16.6.2
Revised Reports, T.2
Revision (Canadian statutes), T.2
Rhode Island

sources of law, T.1

Roman Catholic Church, (see Catholic Church )
Roman law references, T.2
Roman numerals, when not used, R3.1T.2
Roman type (see Typeface)
“R.R.,” in case names, R10.2.1(h)R10.2.2

administrative, R14, R14.2
court, R12.8.3
ethics, R12.8.6
evidence, B6.1.3, R12.8.3
procedure, B6.1.3, R12.8.3

Rules and regulations, proposed, R14.2(b)  
Russian Federation

sources of national law, T.2
treaty sources, T.2

Sales number, U.N., R21.7.7

sources of law, T.10

Scattered sections of code, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)
“Schedule(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

sources of law, T.2

SEC materials

releases, R14.1R14.6
no-action letters, R14.1R14.6

Secondary authorities

administrative reporters, R14.3.2
books and pamphlets, B8R15
citation order, B4.5R1.4(i)
congressional materials, R13.3-R13.4
law journals and reviews, B9R16
legislative histories, R13.6
letters, speeches, interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, B9R16.5
magazines, R16.4T.13
order within signal, B4.5R1.4(i)
periodicals, R16
periodicals, English-language, T.13
periodicals, foreign-language, R20.6
services, R19.1T.15
statutes cited to, B6.1.1R12.2R12.5
Treasury regulations, B6.1.5R14.1R14.5
unpublished works, R17

Section number

generally, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
services, R19


ABA section reports, R16.6.7
administrative compilations, R14.2
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
amending act, R12.4(c)
books and pamphlets, 
citation to, B6.1.1R12.3.2
Code of Federal RegulationsR14.2(a)R14.10(c)
codes, consecutive, B6.1.1R3.3(b)
codes, statutory, B6.1.1R12.3.1(c)
generally, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
international agreements, R21.4.3
model codes, R12.8.5-R12.8.6
newspapers, R16.5
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
proceedings, R16.6.7
restatements, B6.1.3R12.8.5
scattered, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)
sentencing guidelines, B6.1.3R12.8.5
services, R19.1
session laws, B6.1.1R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.3

“Section(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16

scattered, R3.3(b)
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
services, R3.3-R3.4
session laws, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.3

“Section(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, R13.6
Security Council official records, U.N., R21.7.2(b)
“See also,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See, e.g.,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See generally,” as signal, R1.2(d)
Senate materials (see Congressional materials)
“Senator,” abbreviation of, 
Sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
Separate decisions of other issues, in case history, R10.7
Separate opinions

indication of, R3.2(a)R10.6.1(a)
slip opinions, R10.8.1(b)

Serial numbers

books and pamphlets, R15.7
European Community materials, R21.8.2(a)
executive orders, R14.7(a)
intergovernmental organizations’ materials, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
leaflets, R15.7
League of Nations documents, R21.8.1
monographs, R15.7
pamphlets and books, R15.7
proclamations, R14.7(a)
publications in series, R15.7
reorganization plans, R14.7(a)
U.N. documents, R21.7

“Series” and “Serial(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Series, books and pamphlets in, R15.7
Series, renumbered, R10.3.2T.13
Services and topical reporters

abbreviations, T.15
abbreviations of publishers, T.15
administrative rules and announcements, R14.3
basic citation form, R19.1
cases, R10.1
citation of cases, R10.3.1(b)
Common Market materials, R21.5.2(b)T.3
components of citation, R19.1
dates, R19.1(d)
dates of materials in, R19.1(d)
European Community materials, R21.5.2T.3
generally, R19.1
looseleaf, citations of, R19.1
name, R19.1
pages, R19.1(c)
paragraphs, R19.1(c)
parallel citations, for administrative cases, R14.3.2
parenthetical indications of later bound form, R19.1
publishers, R19.1(b)T.15
sections, R19.1(c)
short citation forms, R19.1
statutes, R12.2.1(a)R12.5
subdivisions, R19.1(c)
title of service, R19.1T.15
transfer binders, R19.1(a)
U.S. Law Week, R10.1T.1T.15
volumes and editions, R3.1R19.1(a)
years, R19.1(d)

Session laws (see also Codes, Statutes)

abbreviations, R12.4(c)
“Act of ______”, R12.4(a)
amendments cited to, R12.2.2(b)R12.4(c)
chapter numbers, R12.4(a)T.1
citation, basic forms, R12.1
cited by page, R12.4(b)
codification, future, R12.4(e)
dates, R12.4(d)
effective date of statutes, R12.4(d)
enactment, year or date, R12.4(d)
federal, R12.4
foreign countries, R10.5
former version of statute, R12.2.1(b)
historical fact, statutes cited as, R12.2.2(b)
jurisdiction, abbreviated name of, R12.4(a)
municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
name, R12.4(a)
official and privately published, R12.2
omission of words in title, R12.4(a)
ordinances, uncodified, R12.8.2
pages, when cited to, R12.4(b)
parallel citation of, R12.4R12.5
pinpoint citations, R12.4
printed in roman type, R12.4(b)
public law number, R12.4(b)
recent statutes, R12.2.1(a)R12.4-R12.5
scattered sections of code, R12.2.2(a)
sections and subsections, R3.3(b)R12.4(b)
short title of statute, R12.4(b)
signature by executive, year of, R12.5(b)
statute cited as historical fact, R12.2.2(b)
statute, name of, R12.4(a)
statute not in current code but in force, R12.2.1(a)
statute not in force, R12.2.1(b)
Statutes at LargeR12.4(b)R13.2(b)R14.7(a)T.1T.1
statutes, when cited to, R12.2.1(a)
subsections and sections, R3.3R12.4(b)
typeface, R12.4
U.S. Code Congressional & Administrative News, cited to, R12.5(b)
volume, R12.4(b)
year as volume number, R12.4(b)

Shakespeare, R15.8(c)
Short citation forms

administrative materials, R14.10
audio recordings, R18.7
books and pamphlets, R15.9
broadcasts, R18.7(d)
cases, R10.9
CD-ROM, R18.7(b)
constitutions, R11
court documents and legal memoranda, B5.2
electronic media, R18.7
films, R18.7(d)
foreign materials, R20.7
forthcoming sources, R17.4
generally, R4
international materials, R21.12
Internet sources, R18.7(c)
legislative materials, R13.7
nonprint resources, R18.7
periodicals, R16.7
regulations, R14.10
repeating citations, R4
services, R19.2
statutes, R12.9
treaties, R21.12
unpublished sources, R17.4
works in collection, R15.9

Short Titles Act, T.2
Shorter works in collection

citation form, R15.5
editor, R15.5.1(a)
“in,” R15.5.1(a)
parallel citation, R1.6(a)
“supra” short form, R4.2(a)

“[Sic],” use of, R5.2(c)

analogous support, R1.2(a)
authority from different jurisdiction, R1.2(a)
authority stating proposition, R1.2(a)
background material, R1.2(d)
comparison, R1.2(b)
contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct support, R1.2(a)
generally, R1.2
identification, R1.2(a)
order of authorities within signal, R1.4
order of citation, R1.3
sampling of authorities, R1.2(a)
source of quotation, R1.2(a)
string citations, R1.1R1.3
support, R1.2(a)
table of signals, R1.2
typeface used in court documents and legal memoranda, B4
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1

Slip opinions, R10.1R10.8.1R19.1
Small Business Administration, T.1
Social Security Administration, T.1
Social media, R18.1, R18.2.2, R18.2.2(v)
Songs, R18.6
Sound recordings, R18.6
South Africa

sources of national law, T.2

South Carolina

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law

South Dakota

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law

South Korea
sources of national law, T.2
Spacing of abbreviations and initials,

sources of national law, T.2

Special issues in law journals and reviews, R16.3
Special projects in periodicals, R16.6.2
Special reports of government agencies, R14.2(d)
Speeches, R17.1.5
Split decision

indication of, R10.6.1(a)

SSRN, R17.3R18.2.2(a)
Standards, R12.8.5
Star pages in books and pamphlets, R15.8(b)
State administrative agencies

generally, T.1
reports, R14.2(b)

State cases

court of decision, abbreviations, R10.4(b)T.1
courts of decision, indication of, R10.4(b)
department or division of court, R10.4(b)
official and unofficial reporters, B5.1.2R10.3
parallel citations, B5.1.3R3.3-R3.4T.1
reporters (see name of individual state)

State courts

citation to cases of, R10.2.2
rules of court, R12.8.3

State Department publications, R21.4.5(a)
“State of,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
States (see also name of individual jurisdiction)
abbreviated in case names, 
abbreviation of, T.10
omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
reporters, T.1
session laws, R12.4T.1
statutes, 101–13, T.1
statutory codes, T.1

Statutes (see also Codes, Session laws)

administrative rules and regulations, R14.2
amended, R12.6
amended, uniform acts, R12.6
amendments, R12.6
appendices to codes, appearing in, R12.3.1(g)
basic forms of citation, R12.1
bills and resolutions, R13.2
case construing statute, cited with, R1.6(c)
citation analyzed, R12
citation order, R1.4(b)
cited by page, R12.5
city ordinances, R12.8.2
code appendices, appearing in, R12.3.1(g)
commentary on, cited with, R1.6(c)
compilations, R12.3.1(f)
components of citation, R12-R12.8.3
concurrent resolutions, R13.2(a)
county ordinances, R12.8.2
current code, R12.3.1(c)
date, Internal Revenue Code, R12.8.1
dates, R12.3.2
dates of amendment, R12.6
effective date, R12.3.2R12.6
electronic databases, R18.1.3
ethics, rules of, R12.8.6
explanatory parenthetical phrases, R12.7
federal and state, R12.2.1
foreign jurisdictions, R20.3.2(c)
future codification, R12.5(b)
generally, R12
historical fact, cited as, R12.2.2(b)
history of, as amended, 
R12.2.2(b), R12.7.4

Internal Revenue Code, B5.1.5R12.9.1

Internet sources, R12.1R12.5(b)R18.1(a)R18.2.3

invalidated, R12.7.1

joint resolutions, R13.1-R13.2

legislative history, R13-R13.6

legislative materials, R12-R13.6

materially different from code, R12.2.2(c)

miscellaneous citation forms, R12.9

multiple sections and subsections, R3.3(b)

municipal ordinances, R12.9.2

name of, in session laws, R12.4(a)

names, R12.3.1(a)

newspapers, cited to, R12.2.1(a)R16.6

no longer in force, R12.2.1(b)

not in current code, R12.2.1(a)R12.6

online, authenticated or official, R12.2.1, R18.1-R18.2.1

order within signal, R1.4(b)

ordinances, municipal and county, R12.9.2

original enactment, indication of, R12.7.4

pages, when cited to, r12.4(c)

parenthetical indications, R12.8

parenthetical indications of amendment, R12.7.3R12.7.4

periodicals, cited to, R12.2.1

prior history, R12.7.4

private editor or compiler, R12.3.1(d)

private laws, R12.2.1(c)

privately published, Internal Revenue Code, R12.9.1

publication of, R12.2.1

publisher, 115R12.3.1(d)

recent, R12.6

related authority, R1.6

repealed, R12.2.1(b)R12.7.2

reprinted in appendix of code, R12.3.1(g)

resolutions, R13.2

scattered sections of code, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)

secondary sources, R12.2.1R12.5R12.6

sections, citation to, R3.3R12.2.2(a)

services and topical reporters, R12.2.1R12.6

short citation forms, R12.10

source to cite, R12.1-R12.2

special citation forms, R12.9

state, T1.3

state, uniform acts, R12.9.4

subsequent history, R12.7.1-R12.7.3

substance, parenthetical indication of, R12.8

superseded, R12.2.1(b)

supplements, R12.3.1(e)

Treasury regulations, B5T1.2

uncodified, R12.3.1(f)R12.6

uniform acts, R12.9.4

United States Code (U.S.C.), R12.3T1.1

United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.), R12.3T1.1

United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.), R12.3T1.1

withdrawn, uniform acts, R12.9.4

Statutes at LargeB5R12.4R13.2(b)R18.3.2T1.1
(see also Session laws)

Statutes of Canada, T2.6

String citations, R1.1

Structure of the Bluebook, Introduction

Student work, in periodicals, R16.7.1

order within citations, R1.4(i)


abbreviations, BT1R6.1, T6-T16

capitalization, R8

Chicago Manual of StyleR8(c)

quotations, R5

titles of officials, R9t11

typeface, B1R2

U.S. Government Printing Office Style ManualR8(c)

Sub nom.,” in case history, B4.1.6R10.7.2(a)

Subdivisions in cited material

ABA section reports, R16.7.7

abbreviations, T16

administrative compilations, R14.2(a)

A.L.I. proceedings, R16.7.7

appended material, R3.4

“at,” used to indicate page citations, R3.2(a)R3.3R15.3

Code of Federal RegulationsR14.2

codes, statutory, R12.3.1(b)

constitutions, R11

cross-references, internal, R3.5

endnotes, R3.2(c)

English statutes, T2.42

footnotes, R3.2(b)

generally, R3

graphical materials, 69 R3.2(d)

in,” used to indicate location in an entire work, R1.6(a)(i)R15.5.1(a)

institutes, publications by, R16.7.7

international agreements, R21.4.3

model codes, R12.9.5

multipart articles, R16.7.5

multiple pages, R3.2(a)

multiple paragraphs, R3.3(c)

multiple sections, R3.3(b)

newspapers, R16.6

ordinances, municipal, R12.9.2

pages, generally, R3.2(a)

pages or sections, in books, R3.2-R3.3

pages or sections, in codes, R3.3R12.3.1

pages or sections, in session laws, r12.4(c)

paragraphs, R3.3

parts, R3.1(b)

passim,” use of, B4R3.2(a)

proceedings, R16.7.7

restatements, R12.9.5

sections and subsections, R3.3

separately paginated, R3.1(b)

services, R19.1(c)

session laws, R3.3(a)r12.4(c)

standards, R12.9.5

statutes, R3.3r12.4(c)

supplements, R3.1(c)

treaties, R21.4.3

U.N. materials, R21.7R21.7.7(b)

volumes, R3.1(a)

Subject-matter title of codes, R12.3.1(c)


multiple, in statutes, R3.3(b)

session laws, r12.4(c)

Subsequent citations, short forms, R4

Subsequent history (see History of cases, History of statutes)

Successive citations, short forms, R4

“Superseded by statute,” in case history, R10.7.1(iii)

Supplementing citations

introductory signals to, R1.2


books and pamphlets, R3.1(c)

codes, R12.2.2(a)R12.3.1(e)

Internal Revenue Code, R12.9.1

separately paginated, R3.1(b)

statutory, R12.2.2(a)R12.3.1(b)R12.3.1(e)

Supporting citation

introductory signals to, R1.2


groups of authorities in work, R3.5R4.2(a)

order of authorities, R1.4(j)

previously cited authority, R4.2(a)R15.10.1

textual material in work, R3.5

Supreme Court Justice sitting as Circuit Justice, R10.4(a)T1.1

Supreme Court note, R16.7.1(b)

Supreme Court Foreword, R16.4

Supreme Court ReporterT1.1

Supreme Court ReviewR3.1(a), R1.64

Supreme Court, U.S. (see United States Supreme Court)

Surface Transportation Board, T1.2

Surnames, composed of two words, R10.2.1(g)

Surveys, in periodicals, R16.7.3


sources of national law, T2.39


Cantons (see Cantons, Swiss)

sources of national law, T2.40

Symbols, R6.2

Symposia, in periodicals, R16.7.3

Taiwain, Republic of China
sources of law, T2

Tax Court, citation of cases,
R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3, T.1
Tax materials

cases, R14.5.3
codes, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
Cumulative Bulletin, B6.1.5, R14.5.2
general counsel memoranda, B6.1.5, R14.5.2(d)
generally, R14.5.2
Internal Revenue Bulletin, R14.5.2
Internal Revenue Code, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
practitioners’ citation forms, B6.1.5
private letter rulings, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5.2(b)
revenue procedures, R14.5.2(a)
revenue rulings, R14.1, R14.5.2(a)
technical advice memoranda, R14.5.2(c)
Treasury decisions, R14.5.2
Treasury regulations, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5.1

Telephone interviews, R14.6(c), R17.1.4
Television broadcasts,
R18.5, R18.7(d)
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Tentative drafts, restatements, and model codes, R12.8.5
“Term,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Term of court, R9(c)

abbreviation of, T.10
citation rules and style guides, BT.2
souces of law, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1


abbreviation of case names in, R10.2
court documents and legal memoranda, typeface in, B13
law reviews, typeface in, R2
numbers in, R6.2

Textual footnote materials

typeface used in, R2

Textual material in same work, cross reference to, R3.5
Textual reference to statutes, R12.9
“The,” in case name, R10.2.1(d)
Theses, unpublished, R17.1.2
Times Law Reports, T.2

abbreviations, R15.3
articles in periodicals, R16.2
book reviews, R16.6.1, R16.6.2(c)
books and pamphlets, R15.3
capitalization of, R8(a), R15.3
codes, statutory, R12.3.1(b)
collected documents, R15.5
congressional documents and reports, R13.4
direct Internet citations, R18.2.3(c)
ending with date, R15.3
foreign, R20.2.2
hearings, R13.3
international agreements, R21.4, R21.4.1
multivolume works, R15.7
newspaper articles, R16.5
pamphlets and books, R15.3
personal titles, R9(a), T.11
services, R19.1
student-written materials, R16.6.2
subtitles of books, R15.3
Supreme Court Justices, R9(a), T.11
surveys and symposia, R16.6.3
treaties, R21.4, R21.4.1
typeface, B13, R2, R15.3, R15.5, R16.2, R17.1.1
U.N. materials, R21.1(d), R21.7
unpublished works, R17

“Title(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
“To,” used in place of hyphen, R3.2(a)
“To be codified at,” R12.4(e), R14.1, R14.2
Topical reporters (see Services and topical reporters)
Trademarks,  R21.7.1, T.3
Transcript of record, B10.4, R10.8.3
Transcripts, R10.8.3
audio recordings of court proceedings, 

Transfer binders, services, R19.1(a)
Translations of titles, R20.2
"Translating," R2.2
Translators of books, R15.2
Treasury decisions, R14.5.2
Treasury Decisions Under Internal Revenue Laws, R14.5.2(a), T.1
Treasury regulations, B6.1.5, R14.5.1
Treaties (see also International agreements)

citation analyzed, R21.1(a), R21.4
generally, R21.4

Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.), R21.4.5, T.4
Treatises, B8.1, R15-R15.4

    (see also Books and pamphlets)

Treaty collections, T.4
Treaty Series (T.S.), T.4
Trusteeship Council Official Records, U.N., T.3
Typed manuscripts, R17.1.1

articles, authors of, R16
articles, titles of, R16.2
authors, articles, R16
authors, books, R15.1
authors, works in collection, R15.5
bills and resolutions, R13.2
books, authors of, R15-R15.2
books, cited in court documents and legal memoranda, B8.1, B8.1
books, cited in law reviews, R2
books, titles of, R15.3
bound services, R19.1
case history terms, B5.1.5-B5.2, T.8
case names, in court documents and legal memoranda, B5.1.1-B5.1.2
case names, in explanatory parentheticals, R2.2(b)
case names, in law review citations, R2
case names, in law review text, R2.2(b)
citations in court documents, B3
codes, R12.3
collected works, R15.5
commentary, indication of, R1.6(c)
constitutions, R11
court documents and legal memoranda, B2
documents, legislative, R13.4
explanatory parentheticals, R2.2(b)
explanatory phrases in court documents and legal memoranda, B5.1.4
explanatory phrases in law review footnotes, R2.1(e)
footnotes, citations in, R2.1
footnotes, text in, R2.2(b)
generally, B2, R2
hearings, R13.3
international agreements, R21.1(a)
interviews, R17.1.4
italics, B2
italics, in footnote citations, R2.1
italics, in law review text, R2.2(a)
italics represented by underscoring, B2
italics showing style, R7(a)
large and small capitals, R2.1, R12.3, R12.8.2-R12.8.4, R15.1, R15.3, R15.5.2, R16, R18.5
large and small capitals, in footnote citations, R2.1
law review citations, R2.1
law review text, R2.2(a)
letters, memoranda and press releases, R17.1.3
looseleaf services, R19.1
manuscripts, R17.1.1
model codes, R12.8.5
newspapers, R16.5
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
ordinary roman type, B2, R2
periodicals, names of, R16
publications, cited in court documents and legal memoranda, B9
publications, cited in law review footnotes, R2.2(b)
punctuation, R2.1(f), R2.2(c)
related authority, indication of, R1.6
reporters, R10.1, R10.3.2
reports, legislative, R13.4
restatements, R12.8.5
roman type, in footnote citations, R2.1
roman type, in text, R2.2(a)
rules of court procedure, R12.8.3
services, R19.1
session laws, R12.4
shortened citation form, R4
signals, B4, R2.1(d)
speeches, citations to, R17.1.5
standards, R12.8.5
student-written materials, R16.6.2
subsequent and prior history of cases, R10.7, T.8
textual footnote material, R2.2(b)
textual material in law reviews, R2.2(b)
theses, R17.1.2
titles, R15.3, R15.8
treaties and other international agreements, R13.4
underscoring, use of to represent italics, B2
uniform acts, R12.8.4

Unclear holdings, indication of, R10.6.1(a)
Uncodified laws, R12.3.1(f)
Understandings, international, R21.4
Uniform acts, R12.8.4
Uniform Adoption Act, R12.8.4
Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.), R4.1, R12.8.4
Uniform Laws Annotated (U.L.A.), R12.8.4
Unions, in case names, R10.2.1(i)
United Kingdom

sources of national law, T.2

United Nations materials

Charter, R21.4
citation analyzed, R21.7
generally, R21.7
official records, R21.7.1
periodicals, R21.7.9
sales documents, R21.7.7
yearbook, R21.7.9

United Nations Reports of International Arbitration Awards, T.5
United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), R21.4, R21.12(a), T.4
United States

administrative publications, R14, T.1
bankruptcy appellate panels, R10.4(a), T.1
bankruptcy courts, R10.3.1(b), R10.4(a), R19.1, T.1
Board of Tax Appeals, R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3, T.1
circuit courts, old federal, R10.4(a), T.1
Circuit Justices, R10.4(a), T.1
Claims Court, T.1
Commerce Court, T.1
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, T.1
Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, T.1
Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, T.1
Court of Claims, T.1
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, T.1
Court of Customs Appeals, T.1
Court of Federal Claims, T.1
Court of International Trade, T.1
Court of Military Appeals, T.1
Court of Military Review, T.1
Court of Veterans Appeals, T.1
courts of appeals, R10.4(a), T.1
Customs Court, T.1
district courts, R10.4(a), T.1
Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
international agreements, R21.1(a), R21.4
Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, R10.4(a), T.1
Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals, T.1
Rail Reorganization Court, T.1
session laws, R12.4, T.1
statutory compilations, R12.3, T.1
Supreme Court (see U.S. Supreme Court)
Tax Court, R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3, T.1
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4

“United States,” abbreviation of, R6.1(b), R10.2.1(f), R10.2.2, R15.1(d)
United States Code (U.S.C.)

appendix, R3.4, R12.3.1(g), R14.1
generally, R3.3-R3.4, R12.3, R12.6, R12.9, T.1
supplement, R12.3.1(e)

United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.), R12.3, R12.3.1(d), R12.8.1, T.1
United States Code Congressional & Administrative News (U.S.C.C.A.N.), R12.2.1(a), R12.5(b), R14.7(b)
United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.), R12.2.2(a), R12.3, R14.7(a), T.1
United States Department of State

official treaty sources, T.4

United States Law Week (U.S.L.W.), R10.4(a), T.1, T.15
United States Reports, T.1
United States Supreme Court

abbreviation of, R10.4(a), T.1
administrative orders, R14.8
capitalization of, R8(b)
Circuit Justices, R10.4(a), T.1
citation, R10, T.1
citation in subsequent history, R10.1, R10.7
cite only to official reporter, T.1
date of decision, R10.5
docket numbers, R10.1, R10.8.1(b)
Justice, sitting as Circuit Justice, R10.4(a), T.1
Lawyer’s Edition, T.1
recent decisions, R10.1, T.1
renumbered and reprinted reporters, R10.3.2, T.1
rules, R12.8.3
seriatim opinions of, R10.6.1(c)
subsequent history, R10.7
Supreme Court Reporter, T.1
U.S. Law Week, R10.4(a), T.1
U.S. Reports, T.1

United States Treasury, decisions and regulations, R14.5
United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (U.S.T.), R21.4.5, T.4
Unofficial codes, differently numbered, R12.3.1(b)
Unofficial reporters

    (see also name of individual jurisdiction)
administrative cases, R14.3.2(b)
federal courts, T.1
state courts, B5.1.3, R10.3.1

Unofficial sources

international arbitration awards, T.5
statutes, American, R12.2-R12.3
statutes, foreign, generally, R20.5-R20.7

Unpublished materials, R17
Unreported cases, R10.1, R10.8.1
“Use of,” changed to “ex rel.” in case names, R10.2.1(b)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

VersusLaw, R18.1.2
“Vice Chancellor,” abbreviation of, 
Videotapes, noncommercial,
Virgin Islands

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, 


citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law,

Volume number

administrative reports, R14.2-R14.3
A.L.I. proceedings,
Arabic numerals, 
books and pamphlets,
R3.1, R15.3R15.5.2
case reports, R10.3.2
codes, statutory,
R3.1, R12.3
Common Market cases, R21.5.2
Federal Register
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
law journals and reviews,
R16R16.3, R16.4 
location in citation,
looseleaf services,
R3.1R19, R19.1 
newspaper, R16.5
R3.1R16.3, R16.4 
services, R3.1, R19
session laws, R12.4
years used to indicate, R16.4, R19.1(a)

“Volume(s),” abbreviation of, T.14
Wales (see England)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, R14.7
Weight of authority (see Parenthetical indications)
West reporters

    (see also Unofficial reporters)
B6.1.1, B6.1.2R12.1R12.3.2

West Virginia

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Westlaw, B5.1.3, R6.2R10.9, R18.1, R18.7
“Will of,” in case name, R10.2.1(b)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Working papers, R17.3
World Trade Organization, R21.8.4, T.3
World Wide Web,

(see also Internet sources)

Writers, (see Authors)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Years (see also Dates)

administrative agency reports, R14.2
books and pamphlets, R15.4
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.1R14.2
codes, R12.3.2
Common Market cases, R21.5.2
enactment, session laws, R12.4
ethical opinions, R12.8.6
ethical rules, R12.8.6
Federal Register, R14.1, R14.2
forewords, R15.6
Internal Revenue Code, B6.1.5R12.8.1
Internet, R18.2.3(e)
League of Nations materials, R21.8.1
legislative materials, R13
model codes, R12.8.5
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
periodicals, R16-R16.4
pocket parts, R15.4(d)
prefaces, R15.6
regnal, in English statutes, T.2
restatements, R12.8.5
rules of court, R12.8.3
rules of procedure, R12.8.3
services, R19
session laws, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, uniform acts, R12.8.4
supplements, R3.1(c), R12.3.1(e)R15.4(d)
Treasury regulations, R14.1R14.5.1
treaties, R21.4.4
U.N. materials, R21.7
uniform acts, R12.8.4


basic citation forms, R21.7.9
generally, R21.7.9 

International Court of Justice, R17-R21.5.1R21.7.9
sales number, cited to, R21.7.9
U.N., R21.7

Zambia, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2