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sources of law, T.1


sources of national law, T.2
treaty source, T.2

Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal CitationT.2
Canal Zone

sources of law, T.1

Canon Law, T.2
Canons of Professional Responsibility,
Cantons, Swiss, T.2

change in quotation, indication of, R5.2(a)
court documents and legal memoranda,
courts, R8(b)
generally, R8
headings, R8(a)
Internet main page titles and URLs, R8
party designations, B10.6.2
people or groups, nouns referring to, 
titles of books and articles,
R8(a), R15.3R16.2
titles of foreign documents, 

Case comments in law reviews, R16.6.2
Case history (see History of cases)
Case names

abbreviations, R10.2, T.6
abbreviations, in citations, R10.2.2, T.6
abbreviations, in textual sentences, R10.2.1
administrative actions, R14.3
“administrator,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
ampersand, use of in text,
appeal, when different on, R10.7.2
“appellee,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
arbitrations, international, R21.6
“Ass’n,” abbreviation in text,
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a)
“Bros.,” abbreviation in text,
business firms, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)
citations, abbreviations in, R10.2.2, T.6
cite first listed party only, R10.2.1(a)
“Co.,” abbreviation in text, R10.2.1(c)
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, as party, R10.2.1(j)
Common Market cases,
common names, when different from name in reporter, R10.2.1(k)R10.9(a)
consolidated actions, 
“Corp.,” abbreviation in text,
court documents and legal memoranda, B5.1.1
“d/b/a,” omission of,
descriptive terms,
different on appeal, R10.7.2
“estate of,” 
“et al.,”
European Court of Justice,
“executor,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
“ex rel.,” 
first word, retention in full, 
foreign cases,
generally, R10.2
geographical terms, R10.2.1(f)
given names and initials of parties, R10.2.1(g)
“id.,” use of, 
“In re,” 
R10.2.1(b), R10.3.1, R10.9(a)
in rem actions, R10.2.1(a)R10.2.1(d)
“Inc.,” abbreviation in text,
“Inc.,” when omitted, R10.2.1(h)
Internal Revenue Commissioner, as party, R10.2.1(j)
international arbitrations,
International Court of Justice,
R21.1(b), R21.5.1
“Judgment of,” R10.2.1
Latin words italicized,
“licensee,” omission of,
“Ltd.,” abbreviation in text,
“Ltd.,” when omitted, R10.2.1(h)
mandamus actions, R10.2.1(k)
multiple dispositions, when indicated, 
“No.,” abbreviation in text,
omissions in, R10.2
parenthetical indication of alternate name, R10.2.1(a), R10.2.1(k)
parties, only first-listed named, R10.2.1(a)
partnerships, R10.2.1(a)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1, R21.5.1
popular names, R10.2., R10.2.1(d)
procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
real property, as party, R10.2.1(a)
running heads, words omitted in, R10.2.1
short citation form, to entire decision, R10.9(a)
short forms, R10.9
short names, R10.2.1(k), R10.9(a)
state as party in state court decision, R10.2.1(f)
surnames, R10.2.1(g)
textual references, B5.3, R2, R2.2(a), R10.2
“The,” omission of, R10.2.1(d)
transcripts, R10.8.3
“trustee,” omission of, R10.2.1(e)
typeface used in court documents, B5.1.1, B13, R2
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1(a)
typeface used in law review text, R2.2(a)
unions as parties, R10.2.1(i)
“Will of,” R10.2.1(b)

Case notes in law reviews, R16.6.2
Case number

administrative cases, R14.3.2
appeal or petition for certiorari, R10.1, R10.8.1
court documents, R10.8.3
Federal Cases, T.1, T.1
pending cases, R10.1, R10.8.1
unreported cases, R10.1, R10.8.1

Case writeups

citation of, R16.6-T.1
cited with case, R1.6(b)

Cases (see also individual jurisdiction or court)

administrative actions, R14.1, R14.3.1
appeal, disposition on, R10.1
appeal docketed, R10.1
arbitrations, R14.1, R14.3, R21.1(c), R21.6, R21.12(b)
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a), R10.3.1(b), R10.9(a), R19
basic citation forms, R10.1
before decision, R10.1
Bloomberg, R18.3
briefs, citation of,
B10.1, R1.4(h), R10.1, R10.8.3
British, T.2
certiorari, citation of petition for, R10.1, R10.8.3, R18.4.1
citation, basic forms of, R10.1
citation, components of, B3-B4, R10
citation order, R1.4(d)
citation to particular page, R3.2
civil law (foreign), R20.3.2
commentary on, cited with case, R1.6(c), R20.3.2(d)
common law (foreign), R20.3.1
components of citations, R10
computerized research services, B5.1.3, R18.1.1
concurring opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1
country, indication of, R20.1
court of decision, R10.4
court of decision, abbreviations, T.7
court of decision, American, R10.4
court of decision, other jurisdictions, R20.3
court, when indicated, R10.4
dates, R10, R10.5, R10.8.1
denial of rehearing, R10.7
dictum, R10.6.1(a)
different name on appeal, R10.7.2
dissenting opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1
docket number, B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.8, R10.9, R14.3.2, R21.5.4
dual citation of sources, B5.1.3, B5.1.5, B5.2, R10.3.1, R10.3.3, R10.8.3, R10.9(b), R14.3.2(b)
electronic databases, B5.1.3, R10.9(a), R18
England, T.2
European Union, R21.8.2
explanatory phrases, R10.7.1
federal court, T.1
filed, R10.1
foreign, R20.3.2
history on remand, R10.7
history, prior and subsequent, R10.7
in rem, B5.1.1, R10.2.1(b)
interim orders, R10.1
international and world organization, R21.1, R21.5
international arbitrations, R21.6
International Court of Justice, R21.5.1
Internet sources, R18.2
italicization of names in court documents, B13
italicization of names in text, R2.2
italicization of procedural phrases in citations, R2.1(a)
italicized words in history of, R2.1(a), T.8
Judge or Justice writing opinion, R10.6
LEXIS, cited to, B5.1.3, R18
medium neutral citation, R10.3.3
memoranda, citations to, R10.8.3
memorandum decision, R10.6.1
motions, citation to, R10.8.3
name cited as in official report, R2.2(b)
named in text, initial and subsequent citation, B5.3, R4.1, R10.2, R10.9(c)
names, B5.1.1, R10.2
newspapers, cited in, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R16.5
no name, citation of, R10.2.1
non-common-law, R20.3.2
number of case, R10.1, R10.8.1
official reporters, when cited, B10.1.2, R10.3
online, R10.8.1
order within signal,
page citations, R3.2(a)
parallel citation of sources, B5.1.3, R10.3.1
parenthetical information, R10.6
pending, B5.1.3, R10.1, R10.5, R10.8.1
per curiam decisions, R10.6.1(b)
periodicals, when cited, R10.3.1(b)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
plurality opinion, R10.6.1(a)
prior history,
procedural phrases, R10.2.1(b)
public domain format, R10.3.3
published decision, R10.1
recent, R10.1, R10.5
records, citation of, B10.1, R10.1, R10.8.3
releases of administrative agencies, cited to, R14.2
repeating citations of, R4.1, R10.9
reporters, R10.3
reporters, defined, R10.3.2
reporters, reprinted, R10.3.2
services, appearing in, R10.1
services, when cited, R10.3.1(b)
short citation form, R10.9
slip opinions, reported in, R10.1, R10.3.1(b), R10.8.1(b)
sources, R10.3
state courts, R10.4(b), T.1
statutory material, cited with, R1.6(b)
subsequent history, R10.1, R10.7
transcript of record, citations to, B10, R10.1, R10.8.3
typeface used in court documents, B13
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1
typeface used in law review text, R2.1
unofficial reporter, when cited, R10.3.1(b), R14.3.2(b)
unreported, R10.8.1(b), R18.1.1
weight of authority, B5.1.4, R10.6.1, R10.7.1
Westlaw, cited to, R18, R18.2
year of decision, B5.1.3, R10.5

Catholic Church, codes, T.2
CD-ROM, R18.3, R18.7(b)

applied for, granted, denied, R10.1, R10.7
indication in case history, R10.7
petition, citation of, R10.7
“sub nom.” not used, R10.7.2(a)

“Cf.,” as signal, R1.2(a)
C.F.R., B6.1.4, R1.4(f), R14.1-R14.2, R18.1.3, T.1
“Chancellor,” abbrevation of, T.2

codes, statutory, R3.3
number, when given for federal statute, R12.3.1(b)

 “Chapter(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Charters, international organizations, R21, R21.7.11

“Chief Baron,” “Justice,” “Judge,”

abbreviation of, T.11

Chile, Republic of

sources of national law, T.2 

China, People’s Republic of

sources of national law, T.2

“Circuit,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Circuit courts of appeals (see Courts)
Circuit courts, old federal,
R10.4(a), T.1
Circuit Justices, T.1
Citation of commentary with case or book, R1.6(c)
Citation order, R1.4
Citation sentences and clauses, B2, R1.1

(see also specific types of material)
abbreviations of case names,
analogous authority, R1.2(a)
authentic or official online documents, R18-1(a)
authoritativeness, order within citation,
authorities, R1.4
background authority, R1.2(d)
citations analyzed, R1.1
comparing authorities, R1.2(b)
contradictory proposition, R1.2(c)
court documents and legal memoranda, BT.2
direct contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct support, R1.2(a)
footnotes, B13, R1.1(b)
law review text and footnotes, B13, R5.1, R1.1
material cited more than once, R4, R15.9, R16.7, R17.4, R18.7, R19.2, R20.7, R21.12
numerous authorities, R4.1
omission from quotation, indication of, R5.3
opposing proposition, R1.2(c)
order of, R1.4
pages, R3.2
parenthetical explanations, R1.5
placement, R1.4
placement after quotation, R5.1-R5.2
punctuation of, R1.3, R2.1, R3.3
quotations, R5
related authority, R1.6
repeating citations, R4
sampling of authorities, R1.1
signals in, R1.2
string citations, R1.1, R1.3
subdivisions, R3
supplementary material, R1.2(d)
supporting proposition, R1.2(a)
typeface used, B13, R2
weight of, R10.6

Citations analyzed

books, R15
cases, B5.1.3
constitutions, R11
periodical materials, R16
regulations, R14.2(a)
rules, R14.2(a)
statutes, R12
treaties, R21.4
United Nations materials, R21.7

Cited in,”use of,R1.6(a)
“Citing,” use of in case parentheticals,

City and county ordinances, R12.8.2
“City of,” when omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
Civil law jurisdictions (see also name of jurisdiction)

cases, R20.3.2, T.2
codes, R20.5.2, T.2
constitutions, R20.4, T.2
courts, T.2
statutes, T.2

Civil Rights Act of 1964, R13.6
“Clause(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

Clean Air Act, R13.6
Closing up of abbreviations, R6.1
C.M.L.R. (Common Market Law Reports), R21.5.2(b), T.3
“Co.,” in case names, T.6
“Code,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Code, Internal Revenue (see Internal Revenue Code)
Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.),
R14.1-R14.2, R14.10, R18.1.3, T.1
Code of Justinian, T.2
Code of Theodosius, T.2

    (see also Statutes)
administrative compilations, R14.1-R14.2
American, R12.2.1
appendices, R12.3.1(g)
appendix with reprinted statute, R12.3.1(g)
basic citation forms, R12.1
chapters, R12.3.1(b)
compilations of, R12.3.1(f)
components of citation, R12.2-R12.3
date, R12.3.2
editors, R12.3.1(d)
electronic databases, R18.1.2
ethics, R12.8.6
federal, R12.2-R12.3
foreign, R20.5, T.2(see also name of individual country)
future location of statutes,
historical fact of enactment, R12.2.2(b)
Internal Revenue, B6.1.5, R12.8.1
legislative materials, B6.1.6, R13
LEXIS, R18.1
materially different from statute, R12.2.2(c)
official and unofficial, R12.3
ordinances, city, R12.8.2
ordinances, county, R12.8.2
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
parallel citation to, R12.4
pocket parts, R12.3.1(e)
positive law, enacted into, R12.2.2(c)
publishers of, R12.3.1(d)
Roman law, T.2
scattered sections, R12.2.2(a)
secondary sources cited to, R12.1, R12.5
sections cited, R12.2
state, R12.3, T.1(see also name of individual state)
statutes, when cited to,
subject-matter, R12.3.1(c)
supplements, R12.3.1(e), R12.3.2
tax materials, B6.1.5, R12.8.1, R14.5
titles, R12.3.1(b)
Treasury materials, B6.1.5, R12.8.1, R14.5
typeface used, R12.2.1
uncodified laws, R12.3.1(f), R12.8.2
uniform acts, B6.1.3, B5.2
unofficial, differently numbered, R12.8.1
volumes, R12.3.1(b)
Westlaw, R18.1
which to cite, R12.2.1
year, R12.3.2


session laws, parenthetical indication of, R12.4

Collected works

citation of works in, R15.5
editor, R15.2, R15.5
“id.” short form, R15.9
“in,” used to introduce collection, R1.6(a)
parallel citation to, using “reprinted in,” R1.6(a)
“supra” short form, R15.9

Colloquia, in periodicals, R16.6.3

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

“Column(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

citing commentary with case or statute, R1.6(c)
citing multiple sections of code, R3.3(b)
“compare . . . with” signal, R1.2(b)
italicization, R2.1(f), R2.2(c), T.8
periodical names, T.13
titles ending in dates, R3.2(a), R15.3

Command number, English, T.2
Command Papers, English, T.2
“Comment,” abbreviation of, T.16
“Comment,” designating student work, R16.6.2(b)

model codes, R12.8.6
periodicals, R16.6.2(b)
restatements, R12.8.5
rules of ethics, R12.8.6
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
standards, R12.8.5

Commerce Clearing House (CCH) services, R19.1T.15
        (see also Services and topical reporters)
Commerce Court,
T.1, T.7
Commercial electronic databases (see Electronic databases)
“Commissioner,” abbreviation of,
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, in case names, R10.2.1(j)
Committee materials, UN, R21.7.2, R21.7.3, R21.7.8
Committee prints, R13.1, R13.4
Common law jurisdictions

cases, R20.3.1, R20.7(a), T.2
codes, R20.5.1, T.2
constitutions, R20.4, T.2
statutes, R20.5, R20.7(c), T.2

Common Market Law Reports (C.M.L.R.), R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3
Common Market materials, R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3, T.15
Common Market Reporter, R21.5.2(b), R21.5.8, T.3, T.15
“Commonwealth of,”

capitalization, R8(b)
when omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)

“Compare . . . with . . . ,” as signal, R1.2(b)

administrative regulations, B6.1.4, R14.2
treaties, R21.1(a), T.4

Compilations of statutes (see also Codes, Statutes)

federal, R12.3.1
foreign, R20.5, T.2
state, R12.3.1, T.1

Compiler of codes, R12.3.1(d)
Computerized research services (see Electronic databases)
Concurrent resolutions,
Concurring opinions, B5.1.4, R10.5(d)
“Congress,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Congressional debates, R13.1, R13.5
Congressional Globe, R13.5
Congressional materials

bills and resolutions, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.2
committee prints, R13.1, R13.4
concurrent resolutions, R13.2(b)
debates, R13.1, R13.5
documents, R13.1, R13.4
hearings, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.3
joint resolutions, R13.2
parallel citations, R13.2(a), R13.2(b), R13.4, R13.6
reports, B6.1.6, R13.1, R13.4
resolutions, R13.1, R13.2
secondary authority, R13.2(a), R13.6
unnumbered documents, R13.4(c)

Congressional Record

daily edition, R13.1, R13.5
debates, R13.5
permanent edition, R13.5
resolutions cited to, R13.5, R13.6

Conjunctions, capitalization of, R8(a)

citation rule and style guide, BT.2
sources of law, T.1

Consecutive pages or footnotes, citation of, R3.2(a)
Consecutive sections of codes, R3.3(b)
Consolidated actions, case names, R10.2.1(a)

amended provisions, R11
capitalization of parts of, R8(b)
citation order, R1.4(a)
electronic media, R18.1.2
federal and state, R11
foreign, R20.4, R20.7(b), T.2
generally, B7, R11
order within signal, B4.5, R1.4(a)
repealed provisions, R11
short form, R11
subdivision, R11
superseded, R11
typeface in footnotes, R11

“Construed in,” use of, R1.6(c)
“Construing,” use of, R1.6(c)
“Contra,” as signal, R1.2(c)
Conventions, international, R21.1, R21.4, R21.8.1, R21.12(a)
“Corp.,” in case names, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h), R15.1(d)

abbreviations, R10.2.1(c), R15.1(d)
authors, R15.1
case names, R10.2.1(c), R10.2.1(h)

Corpus Juris Secundum (C.J.S.), R15.8(a)
Council of Europe materials, R21.8.3

    (see also name of jurisdiction)
abbreviated in case names,
abbreviated in international law cases, R21.5.1(a)
abbreviated in international arbitrations, R21.6
abbreviated treaty citations, R21.1(a), R21.4.2
abbreviations of, T.10

County and city ordinances, R12.8.2
“Court,” capitalization of, R8(b)
Court administrative orders, R10.8.4
Court documents and legal memoranda

abbreviations of documents in, B10.1
audio recordings of court proceedings, R10.8.3
block quotations in,
books, citations to, B8.1
cases, citations to, B5
capitalization in, B10.6.2
constitutions, citations to, B7
Electronic Case Filings, B17.1.4, B10.8.3
explanatory parentheticals in,
federal taxation materials, citations to, B6.1.5
Internal Revenue Code, citations to, B6.1.5
journal and newspaper, citations to, B9
parallel citations in, B5.1.3, B5.2
periodicals materials, citations to, B16
signals in,
short forms in, B5.2, B6.2, B8.2, B9.2, B10.5
statutes, citations to, B6
typeface of citations in, B13

Court filings, R10.8.3
Court of Claims, T.1
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, T.1
Court of decision

abbreviations, R10.4, T.7
American, B5.1.3, R10.4
civil law jurisdictions, R20.3.2(a)
common law jurisdictions, R20.3.1
international arbitrations, R21.6
international courts and tribunals, R21.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
B5.1.3, R10.4(b)
when indicated, R10.1, R10.4, R10.8.1, R20.3
when omitted, R10.4

Court of International Trade, T.1
Court of Justice of the European Communities, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, T.3
Court of Military Appeals, T.1

    (see also name of court or jurisdiction)
R10.4, T.7
administrative orders, R14.8
Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit, Court of, R10.4(a), T.1
Appeals, District of Columbia Municipal Court of, T.1
Appeals for the Armed Forces, Court of, T.1
appeals, United States courts of,
R10.4(a), T.1
Arbitration, Permanent Court of, R21.6
bankruptcy, R10.2.1(a), R10.4(a), T.1
bankruptcy appellate panels, R10.4(a), T.1
Board of Tax Appeals, T.1
circuit courts, old federal, R10.4(a), T.1
Circuit Justices, T.1
civil law countries, T.2 
(see also name of jurisdiction)
Claims Court, T.1
Commerce Court, T.1
common law countries, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, Court of, T.1
Court of First Instance, R21.5.2, T.3
Court of Justice of the European Communities, R21.1(b), R21.5.2, T.32
Customs and Patent Appeals, Court of,
district, federal, 89, T.1
Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
English, T.2
European Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b), R21.5.3, T.3
federal, BT.2, T.1
foreign countries, T.2 (see also name of jurisdiction)
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court,
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, R10.4(a)
foreign, language used in citation of, R20.2.2
General Court, R21.5.2, T.3
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,
R21.1(b), R21.5.4, T.3
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, R21.1(b)R21.5.4T.3
international, R21.5
International Criminal Tribunals, R21.1(b), R21.5.6
International Criminal Court, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
International Court of Justice, R1.4(d), R21.1(b), R21.5, T.3
International Trade, Court of, R1.4(d), 
Judicial Panel on Multi-District Litigation, T.1
Military Appeals, Court of, T.1
Military Review, Court of, T.1
Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals, T.1
old circuit, federal, R10.4(a), T.1
Pennsylvania, early federal and state, R20.3.2
Permanent Court of Arbitration, R21.1(c), R21.6
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1, T.3
Rail Reorganization Court, T.1
rules of evidence and procedure, R12.8.3
state, BT.2, T.1
Tax Court, R14.3.1(a), R14.5.3, T.1
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals, T.1
terms, R9
territories, BT.2, T.1
U.S. Supreme (see U.S. Supreme Court)

Courts of Military Review, T.1

court documents and legal memoranda, B13
generally, R3.5
groups of authorities previously cited, R3.5
order of authorities, R1.4(j)
previous footnotes, R3.5
textual material in same work, R3.5

Cumulative Bulletin, B6.1.5, R14.5.2(e), T.1
Customs Court, T.1
Cyclopedia of the Law of Private Corporations, R15.4(a)
Czech Republic

sources of national law, T.2