The Bluebook
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administrative compilations, R14.2
annotations, R16.6.6
“at,” used in citations to particular pages, B5.2, B10.1, R3.2(a), R3.3, R15.3, R16.4, R18.2.3(a), R19.2(a), R21.5.3, R21.7.7(b)
books and pamphlets, R3.2(a), R15
bound services, R10.3.2, R19.2
Code of Federal Regulations, R14.2, R14.7(a)
collected works, R15.5.2
Common Market cases, R21.5.2
consecutive and nonconsecutive, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
Federal Register, R14.2, R14.5-R14.7
first page of authority, citation to, R3.2(a)
generally, R3.2
graphical materials, R3.2(d)
inclusive, R3.2(a)
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
law journals and reviews, R16-R16.4
legislative reports and documents, R13.4
looseleaf services, R12.1, R19.1(d), R21.5.2(b)
multipart articles, R16.6.5
multiple, citation of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
newspapers, R16.5
online sources, R18.1, R18.2.3(c)
particular, reference to, R3.2, R3.5
“passim,” use of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
periodicals, R16-R16.5
Permanent Court of International Justice cases, R21.5.1
reporters, R10.3.2
reprinted reporters with different pagination, R10.3.2
services, R19
session laws, R12.4
shorter works in collection, R15.5
slip opinions, R10.8.1(b)
star, in books and pamphlets, R15.8(b)
statutes, R12.3
statutes, secondary sources, R12.5
U.N. materials, R21.7
unpublished opinion, R10.8.1
World Court cases, R21.5.1

“Page(s),” abbreviation of, R3.2(a), R3.5, T.16
Pakistan, Islamic Republic of
sources of national law T2

Pamphlets (see Books and pamphlets)
Panama (see Canal Zone)
Paragraph number, in services, R3.3(c), R19.1(c)
Paragraphed reporters (see Services and topical reporters)

ABA section reports, R16.6.7
ALI proceedings, R16.6.7
books and pamphlets, R3.3, B15
citations to, R3.3, R6.2(c)
consecutive and nonconsecutive, R3.3(c)
indented but unnumbered, R3.3
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
international agreements, R21.4.5
multiple, R3.3(c)
omission of, in quotations, R5.1(a)
proceedings, R16.6.7
public domain citations, R10.3.1(b)
services, R19.1
treaties, R21.4.5
U.N. materials, R21.7
unnumbered, citation of, R3.3

“Paragraph(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3, R6.2(c), T.16
Parallel citations

articles and collected essays, R1.6
briefs and court filings, R10.8.3
cases, administrative, R14.3
cases, American, R10.3
cases, federal, R10.3.2, T.1
cases, in id. form, B5.2, R10.9(b)
cases, international, R21.5.8
cases, reprinted reporters, R10.3.2
cases, state, R10.3.1-a
European Community materials, R21.5.2
international agreements, R21.4.5
medium neutral citation, R10.8.3
order of citations, parallel and official, R10.3.1
public domain citation, R10.3.3
repeating citations, R10.3.1
services, R10.3.1, R19.1
statutes, American, R12.5
statutes, foreign (see name of individual country)
Treasury regulations, R14.5.1
treaties, R21.4.5
treaty collections, R21.4.5

Parenthetical explanations of authorities, (see Explanatory Parentheticals)
Parenthetical indications

administrative adjudications, R14.3.1
alterations in quotations, R5.2
alternative holding, R12.1
amended statutes, R12.6
arbitration, international, R21.6
arbitrator, R14.3.1(b)
author of opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
broadcasts, R18.5
Bible version, R15.8(c)
"by implication", R10.6.1(a)
“citing,” R10.6.2
codification of session laws, R12.4(e)
commentary, R1.5
common names of cases, R10.2.1(k)
concurring opinions, R10.6.1(a)
court of decision, R10.4, R4.1
dates of cases, R10.5
depublished status, R10.8.1(d)
dictum, R10.6.1(a)
dissenting opinions, R10.6.1(a)
divided court, R10.6.1(a)
docket numbers, R10.1, R10.8.1(b)
editors of books, R15.2
editors of reports, R10.3.2
date of statute, R12.3.2, R12.4(d)
en banc decisions, R10.6.1(a)
ethical opinions, R12.8.6
explanatory phrases, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
films, R18.5
forthcoming publications, R17.2
id. identifying different opinions, R10.9(b)
identifier of cases, R10.8.3
implied holding, R10.6.1(a)
International Court of Justice, R21.5.1
judge writing opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
jurisdiction, American cases, R10.4
jurisdiction, international materials, R20.1, R21.3
Justice writing opinion, B5.1.4, R10.6.1(a)
letters, R17.1.3
location of email correspondence and listserv postings, R10.6.2
location of letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
location of unpublished works, R17.1
mandamus, judge target of, R10.2.1(k)
memorandum decisions, R10.6.1(b)
microform, R18.4
model codes, R12.8.5
multipart articles, R16.6.5
new series (n.s.), T.13
number and series of books and pamphlets, R15.7
order, R1.5, R10.6.3
order of, in parallel Internet citations, R18.2.2(c)
per curiam decision, R10.6.1(b)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.5.1
primary authority commentary, R3.4
plurality opinions, R10.6.1(a)
popular name of statute, R12.3.1(a), R12.4(a)
prior history of statute, R12.6.4
proposed amended drafts of statutes, R12.8.5
“quoting,” R10.6.2
quoting an authority, R1.5(a)
repealed statutes, R12.2.1(b), R12.6.2, R12.8.3
restatements, R12.8.5
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
separate opinions, R10.6.1(a), R21.5.1
serial number, books and pamphlets, R15.7
series and number in series publications, R15.7
services, later bound form, R19.1
session laws, R12.2.1(c), R12.4, R12.7
split decisions, R10.6.1(a)
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.7
statutes, amended, R12.6.3
statutes, history of, R12.6
statutes, prior history, R12.6.4
statutes, repealed, R12.6.2
tentative draft of statute, R12.8.5
translators of books, R15.2(a), R15.4(a), R15.5.1(a), T.2
"translating," R.2.2
unclear holdings, R10.6.1(a)
weight of authority, R10.6.1
when nested, R10.6.3
year, English statutes, T.2

Parlement Européen Documents de Séance, R21.8.2(b)T.3
Parliamentary materials, British, T.2

appeal, under different names, R10.7.2
citation in case names, R10.2
hypothetical, R7(c)
international agreements, R21.1(a), R21.4
international arbitrations, R21.1(c), R21.6
International Court of Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1
omitted in case names, R10.2.1(a)
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1
treaties, R21.1(a), R21.4

Partnership names in cases, R10.2.1(a)
“Part(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
“Passim,” use of, B5.1.2, R3.2(a)
Patents, R14.9
PDF files, B18.1.1, R18.1, R18.2.1(c), R18.2.2(F)
Pending cases, R10.1, R10.5(c)

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
early federal and state cases, R10.3.2
sources of law, T.1

“People of,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
“Per curiam”

in case history, R4.1, R10.6.1(b)
parenthetical indication of, B5.1, B5.1.4, R1.3, R2.1(f), R10.3.1(b), R10.6.1(a), R10.7.2(b)

Percentages, numerals used, R6.2(a)

ABA section reports, R16.6.7
abbreviations, English-language, T.13
abstracts in, R16.6.2(a)
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
annotations, R16.6.6
articles, R16
authors, R16.1
basic citation forms, 
book notes, R16.2, R16.6.2(c), R16.7(a)
book reviews, R16.6.1-R16.6.2, R16.7(a)
case comments, R16.6.2(b)
case notes, R16.6.2(a)
cases, when cited to, R10.3.1(b)
citation order, R1.4(i)
colloquia, R16.6.3
comments, law review, R16.6.2
components of citation, B9, R16
consecutively paginated, R16.5(c)
date, R16
electronic databases, R16.6(e)
foreign, R20.6
forthcoming materials, R17.2
“Developments in the Law,” R16.6.2(b)
generally, R16
institutes, regular publications by, R16.6.7
Internet journals, R18.2.3
multipart articles, R16.6.5
names, abbreviation of, R20.2.3, R20.6(b), T.13
names, typeface used, R16.1
new series (n.s.), T.14
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, R16.5
noncommercial, R16.6.8
nonconsecutively paginated, R16.4
notes, law review, R16.6.2
online, R16.6(e),R18.1
order within signal, R1.4(i)
page citation, R3.2
pages, R16.3-R16.4
pinpoint citations, R16.4
proceedings, R16.6.7
punctuation in titles, when omitted, T.13
recent cases, R16.6.2
recent developments, R16.6.2
recent statutes, R16.6.2
short citation forms, R16.6.2
special projects, law review, R16.6.2
statutes cited to, R12.1, R12.5(b)
student-written material, R16.6.2
Supreme Court note, R16.6.2(b)
surveys of law, R16.6.2(b)
symposia, R16.6.3
titles, R16.2
typeface, in court documents, B13
typeface, in law reviews, R2
undated, R16.6
volume, R3.1
year, R16.3

Periods, to indicate omissions in quotations, R5.3
Permanent Court of Arbitration, R21.1(c), R21.6, T.3
Permanent Court of International Justice, R21.1(b), R21.5.1

sources of national law, T.2

Photoduplicated reprints, R15.4(b)
Phrases of location

letters, speeches, and interviews, R17.1
omitted from case names, R10.2.1(f)
unpublished works, R17.1

Pike & Fischer (P & F) services, T.15

(see also Services and topical reporters)

Pinpoint citations

books, other nonperiodic materials, B8
court and litigation documents, B10.3, R10.8.3
European Union/Community materials, R21.8.2
Federal Register, R14.2(a)
forthcoming publications, R17.2
generally, B5.1.2, R3.2-R3.5
id., B5.2
intergovernmental organization materials, other, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1(d)
Internet sources, R18.2.3(d)
manuscripts, R17.1.1
medium-neutral citation, R10.3.3
multipart articles, R16.6.5
newspapers, R16.5
parallel citations, in B5.1.3
pending, unreported cases, B5.1.3, R10.8.1, R10.9(c), R18.1.1
periodicals, B9, R16.3-R16.5
public domain citation, R10.3.3
session laws, B6.1.1, R12.4
short form citations, in B5.2, B8.2, R10.9(a)
speeches, R17.1.5
statutes, R12.3-R12.4
treaties, R21.4.3
U.N. materials, R21.7


generally, B10, R10.8.3
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1(f)T.3
League of Nations, T.3

Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents, R21.5.1(f), T.3
Plenary materials, U.N., R21.7.1-R21.7.3
Plurality opinion, indication of, R10.5(d)

of abbreviations, R3.1(d), T.6
symbols representing, B6.1.1, R3.2(b), R3.3(b)

Pocket parts (see also entries under Supplements)

books and pamphlets, R15.4(d)
codes, R3.1(c) , R12.3.1(e)

Podcasts, R18.1(b), R18.7.3
Popular names

cases, R10.2.1, R10.2.1(d)
international agreements, R21.4.1(b)
session laws, R12.4(a)
statutes, B6.1.1, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.1(b)

Positive law, codes enacted into, R12.2.2(c)
Pre-1900 works, R15.4(c)
Preamble, constitutional, R11
Prefaces, R15.6

capitalization, R8(a)
in case names, R10.2.1(f), R10.2.1(i)
in court document titles, BT.1
in legislative document titles, T.9
in periodical names, T.13

Presidential papers and executive orders, R1.4(f), R14.7
Press releases,

European Union, R21.8.2(f)
generally, R17.1.3
short form for, R17.4
United Nations, R21.7.4
World Trade Organization, R21.8.4(d)

Previously cited authorities

(see also entry under authority cited; Short citations forms)
cross-reference to, R4.1

Prince Edward Island

sources of law, T.2, T.10

Printing, when indicated, R15.4
Prior history (see History of cases, History of statutes)
Private laws, R12.2.1(c)
Private letter rulings, B6.1.5, R14.1, R14.5.2(b)
Privy Council,

Australian cases, T.2
Canadian cases, T.2
Hong Kong cases, T.2
Indian cases, T.2
Kenyan cases, T.2
New Zealand cases, T.2
Nigerian cases, T.2
South African cases, T.2
United Kingdom, T.2, T.2

“Probable jurisdiction noted,” in case history, T.8

Procedural phrases,

in administrative adjudications, R14.3.1(a)
in case names, B5.1.1, B13, R2.1(a), R2.2(a), R7(b), R10.2.1(b)
in international cases, R21.1(b)
in short form citations, R10.9(a)
in subsequent history of cases, R10.7.2(a)

Procedure, rules of, B6.1.3, R1.4(b), R12.8.3

audio recordings of court, R10.8.3
institutional, R16.7.7
United Nations, R21.7.7

Professional Responsibility, Code of, R12.8.6
Projects, in law reviews, R16.6.2
Proposed administrative rules and regulations, R1.4(f), R14.2(b)
Proposed drafts, restatements and model codes, R12.8.5
Provinces, Canadian, T.2, T.10
Public domain citation, R10.3
Public International Law Cases, Annual Digest and Reports of, R21.5.7
Public law number, when given for federal statutes, B6.1.1, R12.1, R12.2.2, R12.4, T.1
Public Papers of the Presidents, R14.7(b)
Publication number

administrative opinions, R14.3.2(b)
Europeans Union/Community materials, R21.8.2
intergovernmental organizations’ materials, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice rules and acts, R21.5.1(g)
League of Nations publications, R21.8.1, T.3
series publications, R14.2(d), R15.7
U.N. publications, R21.7
WTO materials, R21.8.4

Publication, place of,

books, pre–1900, R15.4(c)
newspapers, R16.5(b)


ABA section reports, R16.6.7
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
considered periodicals or reporters, R10.3.2
forthcoming, R17.1, R17.2
institutes, regular publications, R16.6.7
proceedings, R16.6.7
typeface in court documents and legal memoranda, B9
typeface in law review citations, R2.1
typeface in law review text, R2.1
typeface used for names, R2.1


books, R15.4(a)
CD-ROM, R18.3
codes, R12.3.1(d)
foreign codes, R20.5.2
microform collections, R18.4.2
services, R19.1(b)
session laws, R12.4
statutes, R12.3.1(d)

Puerto Rico

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law, BT.2, T.1


between case and commentary, R1.6(d)
between statute and case construing it, R1.6(b)
citations, separated by semicolons, B4.5, R1.1
initials, R6.1(a)
italicization of, R2.2(c)
periodical titles, T.13
quotations, R5
subdivisions, R3.3
subsequent history of cases, R10.7.1
with introductory signals, R1.2