The Bluebook
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Sales number, U.N., R21.7.7

sources of law, T.10

Scattered sections of code, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)
“Schedule(s),” abbreviation of, T.16

sources of law, T.2

SEC materials

releases, R14.1R14.6
no-action letters, R14.1R14.6

Secondary authorities

administrative reporters, R14.3.2
books and pamphlets, B8R15
citation order, B4.5R1.4(i)
congressional materials, R13.3-R13.4
law journals and reviews, B9R16
legislative histories, R13.6
letters, speeches, interviews, R17.1.3-R17.1.5
newsletters, R16.6.8
newspapers, B9R16.5
magazines, R16.4T.13
order within signal, B4.5R1.4(i)
periodicals, R16
periodicals, English-language, T.13
periodicals, foreign-language, R20.6
services, R19.1T.15
statutes cited to, B6.1.1R12.2R12.5
Treasury regulations, B6.1.5R14.1R14.5
unpublished works, R17

Section number

generally, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
services, R19


ABA section reports, R16.6.7
administrative compilations, R14.2
A.L.I. proceedings, R16.6.7
amending act, R12.4(c)
books and pamphlets, 
citation to, B6.1.1R12.3.2
Code of Federal RegulationsR14.2(a)R14.10(c)
codes, consecutive, B6.1.1R3.3(b)
codes, statutory, B6.1.1R12.3.1(c)
generally, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
institutes, publications by, R16.6.7
international agreements, R21.4.3
model codes, R12.8.5-R12.8.6
newspapers, R16.5
ordinances, municipal, R12.8.2
proceedings, R16.6.7
restatements, B6.1.3R12.8.5
scattered, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)
sentencing guidelines, B6.1.3R12.8.5
services, R19.1
session laws, B6.1.1R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.3

“Section(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16

scattered, R3.3(b)
sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
services, R3.3-R3.4
session laws, R12.4
standards, R12.8.5
statutes, R12.3.1(a)
treaties, R21.4.3

“Section(s),” abbreviation of, R3.3R6.2(c)T.16
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, R13.6
Security Council official records, U.N., R21.7.2(b)
“See also,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See, e.g.,” as signal, R1.2(a)
“See generally,” as signal, R1.2(d)
Senate materials (see Congressional materials)
“Senator,” abbreviation of, 
Sentencing guidelines, R12.8.5
Separate decisions of other issues, in case history, R10.7
Separate opinions

indication of, R3.2(a)R10.6.1(a)
slip opinions, R10.8.1(b)

Serial numbers

books and pamphlets, R15.7
European Community materials, R21.8.2(a)
executive orders, R14.7(a)
intergovernmental organizations’ materials, R21.8.5
International Court of Justice cases, R21.5.1
leaflets, R15.7
League of Nations documents, R21.8.1
monographs, R15.7
pamphlets and books, R15.7
proclamations, R14.7(a)
publications in series, R15.7
reorganization plans, R14.7(a)
U.N. documents, R21.7

“Series” and “Serial(s),” abbreviation of, T.16
Series, books and pamphlets in, R15.7
Series, renumbered, R10.3.2T.13
Services and topical reporters

abbreviations, T.15
abbreviations of publishers, T.15
administrative rules and announcements, R14.3
basic citation form, R19.1
cases, R10.1
citation of cases, R10.3.1(b)
Common Market materials, R21.5.2(b)T.3
components of citation, R19.1
dates, R19.1(d)
dates of materials in, R19.1(d)
European Community materials, R21.5.2T.3
generally, R19.1
looseleaf, citations of, R19.1
name, R19.1
pages, R19.1(c)
paragraphs, R19.1(c)
parallel citations, for administrative cases, R14.3.2
parenthetical indications of later bound form, R19.1
publishers, R19.1(b)T.15
sections, R19.1(c)
short citation forms, R19.1
statutes, R12.2.1(a)R12.5
subdivisions, R19.1(c)
title of service, R19.1T.15
transfer binders, R19.1(a)
U.S. Law Week, R10.1T.1T.15
volumes and editions, R3.1R19.1(a)
years, R19.1(d)

Session laws (see also Codes, Statutes)

abbreviations, R12.4(c)
“Act of ______”, R12.4(a)
amendments cited to, R12.2.2(b)R12.4(c)
chapter numbers, R12.4(a)T.1
citation, basic forms, R12.1
cited by page, R12.4(b)
codification, future, R12.4(e)
dates, R12.4(d)
effective date of statutes, R12.4(d)
enactment, year or date, R12.4(d)
federal, R12.4
foreign countries, R10.5
former version of statute, R12.2.1(b)
historical fact, statutes cited as, R12.2.2(b)
jurisdiction, abbreviated name of, R12.4(a)
municipal ordinances, R12.8.2
name, R12.4(a)
official and privately published, R12.2
omission of words in title, R12.4(a)
ordinances, uncodified, R12.8.2
pages, when cited to, R12.4(b)
parallel citation of, R12.4R12.5
pinpoint citations, R12.4
printed in roman type, R12.4(b)
public law number, R12.4(b)
recent statutes, R12.2.1(a)R12.4-R12.5
scattered sections of code, R12.2.2(a)
sections and subsections, R3.3(b)R12.4(b)
short title of statute, R12.4(b)
signature by executive, year of, R12.5(b)
statute cited as historical fact, R12.2.2(b)
statute, name of, R12.4(a)
statute not in current code but in force, R12.2.1(a)
statute not in force, R12.2.1(b)
Statutes at LargeR12.4(b)R13.2(b)R14.7(a)T.1T.1
statutes, when cited to, R12.2.1(a)
subsections and sections, R3.3R12.4(b)
typeface, R12.4
U.S. Code Congressional & Administrative News, cited to, R12.5(b)
volume, R12.4(b)
year as volume number, R12.4(b)

Shakespeare, R15.8(c)
Short citation forms

administrative materials, R14.10
audio recordings, R18.7
books and pamphlets, R15.9
broadcasts, R18.7(d)
cases, R10.9
CD-ROM, R18.7(b)
constitutions, R11
court documents and legal memoranda, B5.2
electronic media, R18.7
films, R18.7(d)
foreign materials, R20.7
forthcoming sources, R17.4
generally, R4
international materials, R21.12
Internet sources, R18.7(c)
legislative materials, R13.7
nonprint resources, R18.7
periodicals, R16.7
regulations, R14.10
repeating citations, R4
services, R19.2
statutes, R12.9
treaties, R21.12
unpublished sources, R17.4
works in collection, R15.9

Short Titles Act, T.2
Shorter works in collection

citation form, R15.5
editor, R15.5.1(a)
“in,” R15.5.1(a)
parallel citation, R1.6(a)
“supra” short form, R4.2(a)

“[Sic],” use of, R5.2(c)

analogous support, R1.2(a)
authority from different jurisdiction, R1.2(a)
authority stating proposition, R1.2(a)
background material, R1.2(d)
comparison, R1.2(b)
contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct contradiction, R1.2(c)
direct support, R1.2(a)
generally, R1.2
identification, R1.2(a)
order of authorities within signal, R1.4
order of citation, R1.3
sampling of authorities, R1.2(a)
source of quotation, R1.2(a)
string citations, R1.1R1.3
support, R1.2(a)
table of signals, R1.2
typeface used in court documents and legal memoranda, B4
typeface used in law review citations, R2.1

Slip opinions, R10.1R10.8.1R19.1
Small Business Administration, T.1
Social Security Administration, T.1
Social media, R18.1, R18.2.2, R18.2.2(v)
Songs, R18.6
Sound recordings, R18.6
South Africa

sources of national law, T.2

South Carolina

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law

South Dakota

citation rules and style guides, BT.2
sources of law

South Korea
sources of national law, T.2
Spacing of abbreviations and initials,

sources of national law, T.2

Special issues in law journals and reviews, R16.3
Special projects in periodicals, R16.6.2
Special reports of government agencies, R14.2(d)
Speeches, R17.1.5
Split decision

indication of, R10.6.1(a)

SSRN, R17.3R18.2.2(a)
Standards, R12.8.5
Star pages in books and pamphlets, R15.8(b)
State administrative agencies

generally, T.1
reports, R14.2(b)

State cases

court of decision, abbreviations, R10.4(b)T.1
courts of decision, indication of, R10.4(b)
department or division of court, R10.4(b)
official and unofficial reporters, B5.1.2R10.3
parallel citations, B5.1.3R3.3-R3.4T.1
reporters (see name of individual state)

State courts

citation to cases of, R10.2.2
rules of court, R12.8.3

State Department publications, R21.4.5(a)
“State of,” omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
States (see also name of individual jurisdiction)
abbreviated in case names, 
abbreviation of, T.10
omitted in case names, R10.2.1(f)
reporters, T.1
session laws, R12.4T.1
statutes, 101–13, T.1
statutory codes, T.1

Statutes (see also Codes, Session laws)

administrative rules and regulations, R14.2
amended, R12.6
amended, uniform acts, R12.6
amendments, R12.6
appendices to codes, appearing in, R12.3.1(g)
basic forms of citation, R12.1
bills and resolutions, R13.2
case construing statute, cited with, R1.6(c)
citation analyzed, R12
citation order, R1.4(b)
cited by page, R12.5
city ordinances, R12.8.2
code appendices, appearing in, R12.3.1(g)
commentary on, cited with, R1.6(c)
compilations, R12.3.1(f)
components of citation, R12-R12.8.3
concurrent resolutions, R13.2(a)
county ordinances, R12.8.2
current code, R12.3.1(c)
date, Internal Revenue Code, R12.8.1
dates, R12.3.2
dates of amendment, R12.6
effective date, R12.3.2R12.6
electronic databases, R18.1.3
ethics, rules of, R12.8.6
explanatory parenthetical phrases, R12.7
federal and state, R12.2.1
foreign jurisdictions, R20.3.2(c)
future codification, R12.5(b)
generally, R12
historical fact, cited as, R12.2.2(b)
history of, as amended, 
R12.2.2(b), R12.7.4

Internal Revenue Code, B5.1.5R12.9.1

Internet sources, R12.1R12.5(b)R18.1(a)R18.2.3

invalidated, R12.7.1

joint resolutions, R13.1-R13.2

legislative history, R13-R13.6

legislative materials, R12-R13.6

materially different from code, R12.2.2(c)

miscellaneous citation forms, R12.9

multiple sections and subsections, R3.3(b)

municipal ordinances, R12.9.2

name of, in session laws, R12.4(a)

names, R12.3.1(a)

newspapers, cited to, R12.2.1(a)R16.6

no longer in force, R12.2.1(b)

not in current code, R12.2.1(a)R12.6

online, authenticated or official, R12.2.1, R18.1-R18.2.1

order within signal, R1.4(b)

ordinances, municipal and county, R12.9.2

original enactment, indication of, R12.7.4

pages, when cited to, r12.4(c)

parenthetical indications, R12.8

parenthetical indications of amendment, R12.7.3R12.7.4

periodicals, cited to, R12.2.1

prior history, R12.7.4

private editor or compiler, R12.3.1(d)

private laws, R12.2.1(c)

privately published, Internal Revenue Code, R12.9.1

publication of, R12.2.1

publisher, 115R12.3.1(d)

recent, R12.6

related authority, R1.6

repealed, R12.2.1(b)R12.7.2

reprinted in appendix of code, R12.3.1(g)

resolutions, R13.2

scattered sections of code, R3.3(b)R12.2.2(a)

secondary sources, R12.2.1R12.5R12.6

sections, citation to, R3.3R12.2.2(a)

services and topical reporters, R12.2.1R12.6

short citation forms, R12.10

source to cite, R12.1-R12.2

special citation forms, R12.9

state, T1.3

state, uniform acts, R12.9.4

subsequent history, R12.7.1-R12.7.3

substance, parenthetical indication of, R12.8

superseded, R12.2.1(b)

supplements, R12.3.1(e)

Treasury regulations, B5T1.2

uncodified, R12.3.1(f)R12.6

uniform acts, R12.9.4

United States Code (U.S.C.), R12.3T1.1

United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.), R12.3T1.1

United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.), R12.3T1.1

withdrawn, uniform acts, R12.9.4

Statutes at LargeB5R12.4R13.2(b)R18.3.2T1.1
(see also Session laws)

Statutes of Canada, T2.6

String citations, R1.1

Structure of the Bluebook, Introduction

Student work, in periodicals, R16.7.1

order within citations, R1.4(i)


abbreviations, BT1R6.1, T6-T16

capitalization, R8

Chicago Manual of StyleR8(c)

quotations, R5

titles of officials, R9t11

typeface, B1R2

U.S. Government Printing Office Style ManualR8(c)

Sub nom.,” in case history, B4.1.6R10.7.2(a)

Subdivisions in cited material

ABA section reports, R16.7.7

abbreviations, T16

administrative compilations, R14.2(a)

A.L.I. proceedings, R16.7.7

appended material, R3.4

“at,” used to indicate page citations, R3.2(a)R3.3R15.3

Code of Federal RegulationsR14.2

codes, statutory, R12.3.1(b)

constitutions, R11

cross-references, internal, R3.5

endnotes, R3.2(c)

English statutes, T2.42

footnotes, R3.2(b)

generally, R3

graphical materials, 69 R3.2(d)

in,” used to indicate location in an entire work, R1.6(a)(i)R15.5.1(a)

institutes, publications by, R16.7.7

international agreements, R21.4.3

model codes, R12.9.5

multipart articles, R16.7.5

multiple pages, R3.2(a)

multiple paragraphs, R3.3(c)

multiple sections, R3.3(b)

newspapers, R16.6

ordinances, municipal, R12.9.2

pages, generally, R3.2(a)

pages or sections, in books, R3.2-R3.3

pages or sections, in codes, R3.3R12.3.1

pages or sections, in session laws, r12.4(c)

paragraphs, R3.3

parts, R3.1(b)

passim,” use of, B4R3.2(a)

proceedings, R16.7.7

restatements, R12.9.5

sections and subsections, R3.3

separately paginated, R3.1(b)

services, R19.1(c)

session laws, R3.3(a)r12.4(c)

standards, R12.9.5

statutes, R3.3r12.4(c)

supplements, R3.1(c)

treaties, R21.4.3

U.N. materials, R21.7R21.7.7(b)

volumes, R3.1(a)

Subject-matter title of codes, R12.3.1(c)


multiple, in statutes, R3.3(b)

session laws, r12.4(c)

Subsequent citations, short forms, R4

Subsequent history (see History of cases, History of statutes)

Successive citations, short forms, R4

“Superseded by statute,” in case history, R10.7.1(iii)

Supplementing citations

introductory signals to, R1.2


books and pamphlets, R3.1(c)

codes, R12.2.2(a)R12.3.1(e)

Internal Revenue Code, R12.9.1

separately paginated, R3.1(b)

statutory, R12.2.2(a)R12.3.1(b)R12.3.1(e)

Supporting citation

introductory signals to, R1.2


groups of authorities in work, R3.5R4.2(a)

order of authorities, R1.4(j)

previously cited authority, R4.2(a)R15.10.1

textual material in work, R3.5

Supreme Court Justice sitting as Circuit Justice, R10.4(a)T1.1

Supreme Court note, R16.7.1(b)

Supreme Court Foreword, R16.4

Supreme Court ReporterT1.1

Supreme Court ReviewR3.1(a), R1.64

Supreme Court, U.S. (see United States Supreme Court)

Surface Transportation Board, T1.2

Surnames, composed of two words, R10.2.1(g)

Surveys, in periodicals, R16.7.3


sources of national law, T2.39


Cantons (see Cantons, Swiss)

sources of national law, T2.40

Symbols, R6.2

Symposia, in periodicals, R16.7.3